Risk Factors Associated with Acute Coronary Syndromes in South African Asian Indian Patients [The AIR Study]
|Naresh Ranjith1*, Rosemary J. Pegoraro2 and Monique G. Zaahl3|
|1Department of Medicine, Coronary Care Unit, R. K. Khan Hospital, South Africa|
|2Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa|
|3Department of Genetics, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa|
|Corresponding Author :||N. Ranjith
Professor, Coronary Care Unit
R. K. Khan Hospital, Private Bag X004
Chatsworth 4030, Durban, Kwazulunatal, South Africa
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received October 10, 2011; Accepted November 19, 2011; Published November 23, 2011|
|Citation: Ranjith N, Pegoraro RJ, Zaahl MG (2011) Risk Factors Associated with Acute Coronary Syndromes in South African Asian Indian Patients [The AIR Study]. J Clinic Experiment Cardiol 2:163. doi:10.4172/2155-9880.1000163|
|Copyright: © 2011 Ranjith N, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Aims: To examine the association between traditional risk factors and acute coronary syndrome [ACS] in the South Asian Indian population in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.
Methods and Results: The study population comprised 4418 patients with a mean age of 54.6 ± 10.9 years, of whom 67% were males. The majority presented with STEMI [75%], 16% had NSTEMI, and 9% unstable angina. Visceral obesity [82%, mean waist circumference 101.43 ± 10.34 cm] was the most commonly observed risk factor, while 78% had hypercholesterolaemia [mean 5.97 ± 1.11 mmol/L] and 74% a family history of vascular disease. More males compared to females were smokers [p < 0.0001], while females were more likely to have visceral obesity, diabetes, hypertension, increased BMI, and low HDL cholesterol levels [p < 0.0001]. Young patients [≤ 45 years, n = 968] had a higher incidence of family history of vascular disease [83%, p = 0.019], smoking [79%, p = < 0.0001], and hypertriglyceridaemia [62%, p = 0.014] compared to middle [46 – 65 years, n = 2708] or old age [> 65 years, n = 742] groups, whilst older patients were more likely to have diabetes [59 %, p = 0.001], and hypertension [68 %, p = <0.0001].
Conclusion: Asian Indians in South African have multiple risk factors for ACS, possibly contributing to the increased incidence of coronary heart disease at a young age. This study further confirms that a family history of vascular disease is strongly associated with the presence of ACS, and should be incorporated in future risk factor analyses.