Risk of Low Birth Weight and Very Low Birth Weight from Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Speciation Metals during PregnancyBoubakari Ibrahimou1,3*, Hamisu M Salihu3,4, Janvier Gasana1,5 and Hilda Owusu2
- *Corresponding Author:
- Boubakari Ibrahimou
Department of Biostatistics
Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work
Florida International University, 11200 S.W. 8th Street
AHC2 576A, Miami, FL 33199, USA
Tel: 305 348-7524
Fax: 305 348-4901
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: February 24, 2014; Accepted date: September 13, 2014; Published date: September 20, 2014
Citation: Ibrahimou B, Salihu HM, Gasana J, Owusu H (2014) Risk of Low Birth Weight and Very Low Birth Weight from Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Speciation Metals during Pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet (Sunnyvale) 4:244. doi: 10.4172/2161-0932.1000244
Copyright: © 2014 Ibrahimou B, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Purpose: To examine the association between maternal exposures to particulate matter speciation metals during pregnancy and the risk of Low Birth Weight (LBW) or Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) in offspring.
Methods: This retrospective population-based cohort study involved two linked databases: the Florida birth certificate records for births for Hillsborough and Pinellas Counties from 2004 to 2007, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) particulate matter speciation data. Exposure values of speciation chemicals for pregnant mothers were allocated based on their residential proximity to monitoring sites. Primary outcomes of interest were LBW and VLBW. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were computed using multivariable logistic regression.
Results: Exposure to particulate matter sodium and aluminum during first trimester and the entire pregnancy period were associated with the odds of having LBW and VLBW. Exposure to PM2.5 sodium increased the risk of LBW by more than 35% for both the first trimester and the entire pregnancy period (OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.19-1.68 and OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.02-1.79 respectively). PM2.5 sodium exposure was also associated with the risk of VLBW for the entire pregnancy exposure (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.07-3.96). PM2.5 aluminum exposure during the whole pregnancy also was associated with an increased the risk of low birth weight (OR=1.08, 95% CI= 1.01-1.15) but not associated with the risk of very low birth weight (OR=1.02, 95% CI= 0.97-1.06).
Conclusion: Maternal exposure to PM2.5 aluminum and sodium during pregnancy increases the risk of both low birth weight and very low birth weight, which suggests a need for further research to be conducted on the health effects of exposure to PM2.5 speciation metals in general, and aluminum and sodium in particular.