Role of 17ÃÂ²-Estradiol in Learning and MemoryPaola Rossi1* and Valentina Cesaroni2
- Corresponding Author:
- Paola Rossi
Associate Professor, Department of Biology and Biotechnology
University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 9
Italia Pavia-27100, Italy
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: October 20, 2015; Accepted Date: October 22, 2015; Published Date: October 30, 2015
Citation: Rossi P, Cesaroni V (2015) Role of 17ß-Estradiol in Learning and Memory. J Women’s Health Care 4:282. doi:10.4172/2167-0420.1000282
Copyright: © 2015 Rossi P, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Ovarian hormones regulate a wide variety of non-reproductive functions in the central nervous system by interacting with several molecular and cellular processes. Estrogens are steroid hormones that are synthesized in the gonads [peripherally-synthesized or “neuroactive steroids”] as well as in various tissues throughout the body, including the brain [brain-synthetized or “neurosteroids”]. 17β-Estradiol [E2] is the most potent and predominant form of estrogen. E2 has a number of effects on cognition and brain function. The effects on memory depend on hormone levels and on binding to different estrogen receptors within neural circuits.
The purpose of this review is to highlight the complex relationship between E2 and cognitive functioning, analyzing the difference of effects described by observational studies compared to randomized controlled large-scale clinical trials. We review how E2 signaling affects memory processes: it starts from neurons and reaches superior learning and memory function through the effect on synapses and on the neuronal network.