alexa Role of Ceramide in the Barrier Function of the Stratum Corneum, Implications for the Pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-9554

Journal of Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
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Review Article

Role of Ceramide in the Barrier Function of the Stratum Corneum, Implications for the Pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis

Genji Imokawa1* and Koichi Ishida2

1Research Institute for Biological Functions, Chubu University, Aichi, Japan

2Global R&D-Skin Beauty, Kao Corporation, Tokyo, Japan

*Corresponding Author:
Genji Imokawa
Research Institute for Biological Functions
Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto
Kasugai, Aichi, 487-8501 Japan
Tel: +81 0568 51 6189
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: November 20, 2013; Accepted date: January 03, 2014; Published date: January 10, 2014

Citation: Imokawa G, Ishida K (2014) Role of Ceramide in the Barrier Function of the Stratum Corneum, Implications for the Pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis. J Clin Exp Dermatol Res 5: 206. doi: 10.4172/2155-9554.1000206

Copyright: © 2014 Imokawa G, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Atopic dermatitis is a recurrent dermatitis which is characterized clinically by atopic dry skin and functionally by cutaneous barrier disruption even in the non-lesional skin. These abnormalities have been thought to be mainly attributable to significantly decreased levels of ceramides even in the non-lesional stratum corneum. Recently, in association with the barrier disruption in atopic dermatitis skin, prevalent and rare loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin have been reported to be an important pre-disposing factor for the development of atopic dermatitis. However, a mechanistic connection between filaggrin loss-of-function mutations and barrier disruption has not been resolved and remains controversial. This review article explores the physiological and biochemical basis for the atopic dermatitis phenotype in terms of the barrier abnormality and associated factors such as ceramides and its metabolites in the following sequence: (1) Clinical characteristics as a recurrent dermatitis (2) Abnormality in cutaneous permeability barrier function (3) Is barrier disruption a cause or a result of dermatitis? (4) Is the barrier abnormality inherent or not? (5) Role of ceramides (6) Transglutaminase or filaggrin mutations and barrier disruption (7) Contribution of the barrier abnormality to the Th1/Th2 balance (8) Th1/Th2 balance and ceramide deficiency (9) S. aureus colonization and ceramide deficiency (10) Is the ceramide deficiency inherent or not? (11) Inflammation as a causative factor that downregulates ceramide generation, (12) Biological mechanisms underlying the ceramide deficiency (13) Clinical efficacy of ceramide as a major role for the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis

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