Role of Reverse Transcriptase and APOBEC3G in Survival of Human Immune Deficiency Virus -1 Genome
Raj Kumar Soni*, Amol Kanampalliwar and Archana Tiwari
School of Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya (State Technological University), Madhya Pradesh, India
- Corresponding Author:
- Raj Kumar Soni
School of Biotechnology
Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya (State Technological University)
Airport Bypass Road, Bhopal - 462033
Madhya Pradesh, India
Received Date: October 04, 2013; Accepted Date: December 16, 2013; Published Date: December 23, 2013
Citation: Soni RK, Kanampalliwar A, Tiwari A (2013) Role of Reverse Transcriptase and APOBEC3G in Survival of Human Immune Deficiency Virus -1 Genome. Virol Mycol 3:125. doi: 10.4172/2161-0517.1000125
Copyright: © 2013 Soni RK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Development of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is a major challenge for scientists at present. Rapid mutation and replication of the virus in patients contribute to the evolution of the virus, which makes it unconquerable. Hence a deep understanding of critical elements related to HIV-1 is necessary. Errors introduced during DNA synthesis by reverse transcriptase are the primary source of genetic variation within retroviral populations. Numerous current studies have shown that apolipo protein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) proteins mediated sublethal mutagenesis of HIV-1 proviral DNA contributes in viral fitness by accelerating human immunodeficiency virus-1 evolution. This results in the loss of the immunity and development of resistance against anti-viral drugs. This review focuses on the latest biological, biochemical, and structural studies in an attempt to discuss current ideas related to mutations initiated by reverse transcriptase and APOBEC3G. It also describes their effect on immunological diversity and retroviral restriction, and their overall effect on the viral genome respectively. A new procedure for eradication of HIV-1 has also been proposed based on the previous studies and proven facts.