Roles of Free Radicals in the Toxicity of Environmental Pollutants and Toxicants
Birandra K Sinha*
Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, North Carolina, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Birandra K Sinha
Free Radical Metabolism Group
Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology
National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: August 29, 2013; Accepted date: August 29, 2013; Published date: August 31, 2013
Citation: Sinha BK (2013) Roles of Free Radicals in the Toxicity of Environmental Pollutants and Toxicants. J Clinic Toxicol S13:e001. doi: 10.4172/2161-0495.S13-e001
Copyright: © 2013 Sinha BK. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Within an hour of the planned feeding of a group of 300 Holstein cattle, a large number of cattle developed tremors, diarrhea, weakness, and paralysis. All cows exposed to the feed, a total of 159, died within 24 hours despite treatment attempts with atropine in approximately 100 animals. An additional 8 exposed animals were culled within a week. A thorough investigation demonstrated the accidental mixing of phorate into the total mixed ration instead of the intended mineral mix. Diagnostics confirming phorate exposure in deceased animals included brain cholinesterase determinations and the analysis of liver, rumen content, milk, and feed for phorate. Phorate is a restricted-use organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in US agriculture because of target pest efficacy, cost, and availability. Even with known human, animal, and ecological risks, organophosphorus pesticides remain the most widely used insecticides in the world today. This necessitates awareness about how to identify pesticide exposure in food animals and the corresponding public health risks for humans, including the potential for meat and milk residues and exposure in children. This report describes a dairy’s catastrophic loss of 167 cows caused by human error and assesses the public health implications therein. Veterinary diagnosticians, public health officials, and veterinarians must be prepared to collaborate in order to advise clients on case work-up, management, and preventive measures.