alexa Roles of Nitric Oxide Synthases in Arteriosclerotic Vascular Disease:Insights from Murine Genetic Models
ISSN: 2155-9880

Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
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Review Article

Roles of Nitric Oxide Synthases in Arteriosclerotic Vascular Disease:Insights from Murine Genetic Models

Masato Tsutsui1*, Hiroaki Shimokawa2, Akihide Tanimoto3, Nobuyuki Yanagihara4, Masahito Tamura5 and Yutaka Otsuji5
1Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Japan
2Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan
3Department of Molecular and Cellular Pathology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan
4Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan
5Second Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan
Corresponding Author : Masato Tsutsui
Department of Pharmacology
Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus
207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0215, Japan
Tel: +81-98-895-1133
Fax: +81-98-895-1411
E-mail: [email protected]
Received May 02, 2014; Accepted May 26, 2014; Published June 06, 2014
Citation: Tsutsui M, Shimokawa H, Tanimoto A, Yanagihara N, Tamura M, et al. (2014) Roles of Nitric Oxide Synthases in Arteriosclerotic Vascular Disease: Insights from Murine Genetic Models. J Clin Exp Cardiolog 5:318. doi:10.4172/2155-9880.1000318
Copyright: © 2014 Tsutsui M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Nitric Oxide (NO) exerts a variety of biological actions under both physiological and pathological conditions. NO is synthesized by three distinct NO synthase (NOS) isoforms, encoded by three distinct NOS genes, including neuronal (nNOS), inducible (iNOS), and endothelial NOS (eNOS), all of which are expressed in the human vascular system. Although the roles of the NOSs in arteriosclerotic vascular diseases have been described in pharmacological studies with selective and non-selective NOS inhibitors, the selectivity and specificity of the NOS inhibitors continue to be an issue of debate. To solve this issue, genetically altered animals have been established. All types of NOS gene-deficient animals have been developed, including singly, doubly, and triply NOS-deficient mice and various types of NOS Gene-Transgenic (TG) animals have also been generated, including conditional and non-conditional TG mice bearing site-specific overexpression of each NOS gene. The roles of individual NOS isoforms as well as the entire NOSs system in arteriosclerotic vascular diseases have been extensively investigated in those mice, providing pivotal insights into an understanding of the pathophysiological significance of the NOSs in human arteriosclerotic vascular diseases. The present review, which is based on studies with the murine NOS genetic models, summarizes the latest knowledge about the NOSs and arteriosclerotic vascular diseases.

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