alexa Scar Removal, Cell Transplantation, and Locomotor Training- Strategies to Improve Tissue Repair and Functional Recovery in Rat with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury
ISSN: 2329-9096

International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Open Access

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Review Article

Scar Removal, Cell Transplantation, and Locomotor Training- Strategies to Improve Tissue Repair and Functional Recovery in Rat with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

Shu-xin Zhang1*, Fengfa Huang1, Mary Gates1 and Eric G. Holmberg1,2

1Spinal Cord Society Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80526 USA

2Department of Chemistry University of Alaska, Anchorage, Alaska, 99508 USA

*Corresponding Author:
Shu-xin Zhang
Spinal Cord Society Research Center
2301 Research Blvd., Suite #203
Fort Collins, CO 80526-1826, USA
Tel: (970) 484-9178
Fax: (970) 484-3262
E-mail: [email protected] (or) [email protected]

Received Date: July 18, 2014; Accepted Date: September 20, 2014; Published Date: September 25, 2014

Citation: Zhang S, Huang F, Gates M, Holmberg EG (2014) Scar Removal, Cell Transplantation, and Locomotor Training- Strategies to Improve Tissue Repair and Functional Recovery in Rat with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury. Int J Phys Med Rehabil 2:233. doi: 10.4172/2329-9096.1000233

Copyright: © 2014 Zhang S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Great progress has been made over the past three decades with studies that have focused on the reversal of the symptoms of spinal cord injury (SCI). This progress has given hope that there is a possibility that tens of thousands of patients afflicted with this malady could gain both sensory and motor function again. According to estimates there are about 400,000 patients with chronic SCI who are confined to wheelchairs in the United States. However, significantly less attention has been lent to the study of chronic SCI. Although many approaches have been found to be beneficial leading to functional recovery from acute spinal cord injury, unfortunately, these interventions do not work on chronic SCI. Chronic SCI possesses a different pathophysiology that requires a different approach for effective treatment. One of the characteristic features of chronic SCI is the formation of a glial scar, which has been considered an obstacle for tissue repair and axonal regeneration. We believe that removal of the existing glial scar is necessary for tissue repair and axonal regeneration. In recent years our research work has been focused on glial scar removal, cell/tissue transplantation, and development of TANES (tail nerve electrical stimulation)-induced open field locomotor training to improve the locomotor outcome. These steps are synergistic and contribute to the final functional recovery. Results from our lab are encouraging and may be beneficial to further study of chronic SCI. In this article we will discuss the approaches we have administered and postulate their mechanisms.


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