Seasonal Influenza Vaccination: Its Expected and Unexpected Effects
- *Corresponding Author:
- Xu-Sheng Zhang
Medical Research Council Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Imperial College School of Public Health
London, United Kingdom
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: February 29, 2016; Accepted date: March 25, 2016; Published date: March 30, 2016
Citation: Zhang XS, Pebody RG, McCauley JW (2016) Seasonal Influenza Vaccination: Its Expected and Unexpected Effects. J Vaccines Vaccin 7:314. doi: 10.4172/2157-7560.1000314
Copyright: © 2016 Xu-Sheng Z, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Vaccination can induce immune response to protect people against antigenically related virus strains. Although influenza is a vaccine preventable infectious disease, seasonal influenza epidemics still occur annually; and occasional but dramatic pandemics emerge. The reason lies in two evolutionary events regarding influenza viruses: antigenic drift and shift. They continuously generate new strains which annual seasonal and pandemic vaccination aims to track. Recently we proposed a mathematical model to examine the interaction between infection and vaccination. The results from our model showed that vaccination for seasonal influenza protects the vaccinated against vaccine strains (its expected effect), however, the effect of seasonal vaccination on the potential emergence of a future pandemic strain (unexpected effect) remains more uncertain. Further, the effectiveness of the proposed universal vaccines that are designed to provide full spectrum immune protection against seasonal and pandemic influenza will depend on their strength of cross-immunity relative to that induced by natural infection.