Serum Adiponectin Levels and Their Association with Antiretroviral Therapy and Lipid Profile in HIV-Infected Individuals in South India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Saramma Mini Jacob
Department of Experimental Medicine
The Tamilnadu Dr. M.G.R Medical University
Anna Salai, Guindy, Chennai-600032, India
Tel: +91 44 22300779
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: May 27, 2014; Accepted date: September 25, 2015; Published date: September 30, 2015
Citation: Kalyanasundaram AP, Jacob SM, Ramachandran H, Sivakumar MR (2015) Serum Adiponectin Levels and Their Association with Antiretroviral Therapy and Lipid Profile in HIV-Infected Individuals in South India. J AIDS Clin Res 6:504.doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000504
Copyright: © 2015 Kalyanasundaram AP, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objective: Adiponectin is a plasma protein with anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects. Low levels of circulating adiponectin have been reported in HIV-infected patients. However, there are no studies in India on adiponectin levels in HIV-infected antiretroviral-treated and treatment-naïve subjects. Therefore, we estimated adiponectin levels in HIV-positive individuals and investigated their associations with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and lipid profile.
Materials and methods: Consenting HIV-infected and non-infected men and women were recruited from Namakkal district, Tamilnadu, India. A semi structured questionnaire was administered in the local language (Tamil) to all patients which included socio-demographics, and details on ART. Fasting blood samples were collected and anthropometric measurements obtained. Serum adiponectin levels and lipid profile levels were determined.
Results: Adiponectin levels were measured in 139 individuals of whom sixty four individuals were on ART, 36 were ART naïve, and 39 were HIV-negative subjects. HIV-infected patients had significantly lower adiponectin levels than the HIV-uninfected (p=0.000). HIV-positive patients had a 17.92-fold decrease in adiponectin values when compared to HIV-negative controls. Also, patients on ART had a 21-fold decrease in adiponectin levels when compared to ARTnaïve patients. Moreover, patient’s currently or previously receiving stavudine treatment had a 3.8-fold decrease in adiponectin levels when compared to those who had never received stavudine. Regarding lipid profile, high density lipoprotein (HDL) - cholesterol was positively associated with adiponectin (p=0.004) while very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) - cholesterol (p=0.017) and triglycerides (p=0.017) showed a negative association in patients on ART. Adiponectin concentration in patients on ART with dyslipidemia was significantly decreased as compared to those without dyslipidemia (p=0.030).
Conclusion: Serum adiponectin levels were lower in this HIV-infected South Indian population as compared to HIVnegative controls. Stavudine seemed to influence adiponectin levels. The significant association between ART-induced hypoadiponectinemia and adverse changes in lipid profile suggests a higher risk of atherosclerosis in this population.