Short and Long-Term Effects of Compromised Birth Weight, Head Circumference, and Apgar Scores on Neuropsychological DevelopmentStephanie B. Gampel1,2* and Yoko Nomura2,3
- Corresponding Author:
- Stephanie B. Gampel
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
1300 Morris Park Ave
Bronx, NY 10461, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: May 08, 2014; Accepted date: July 26, 2014; Published date: August 04, 2014
Citation: Gampel SB, Nomura Y (2014) Short and Long-Term Effects of Compromised Birth Weight, Head Circumference, and Apgar Scores on Neuropsychological Development. J Psychol Abnorm Child 3:127. doi:10.4172/2329-9525.1000127
Copyright: © 2014 Gampel SB, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) is an adverse perinatal risk that may reflect a poor intrauterine environment. While LBW has been a well-known predictor of physical, neurological, cognitive and psychological deficits later in life, minimal research has been done on small head circumference and low 5 minute Apgar scores, and their association with subsequent developmental abnormalities. Objective: The current study aims to demonstrate that small head circumference and low 5-minute Apgar scores are predictors for developmental abnormalities throughout childhood and later. Methods: Using a longitudinal design, 2,151 individuals’ physical, neurological, and cognitive functioning in childhood, as well as psychological functioning in adulthood, was assessed as a function of three perinatal risk factors: LBW, small head circumference and low Apgar scores. Results: Similar to findings with LBW, small head circumference or a low Apgar score were associated with increased number of hospital visits (p<0.0001 and p=0.005 respectively) and neurological abnormalities (p<0.0001 and p=0.001 respectively) at age 1. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at ages 4 and 7 were significantly lower for those born with small head circumference (p<0.0001) or low Apgar scores (p=0.002). Finally, the incidence of anxiety in adulthood was significantly higher for those born with small head circumference (p=0.03) or low Apgar scores (p=0.004) compared to their counterpart. Conclusion: Small head circumference and low a Apgar score are predictors of later physical, neurological, cognitive and psychological abnormalities, and can complement LBW, a more frequently used perinatal risk factor, and thus be used to screen for future developmental deficits, together with LBW.