Significant Presence of Nontoxinogenic Coliforms in the Drinking Water Supply of the Mattingly Residential Area of St. Kitts Suggests that the Most Common Cause of Gastroenteritis could be Transmission due to Enteric Viruses in Drinking Water
James O. Adekeye, Denise Ellis and Girish J. Kotwal*
University of Medicine and Health Sciences, St. Kitts West Indies, USA
- Corresponding Author:
- Girish J. Kotwal
InFLaMed Inc. and Kotwal Bioconsulting
LLC, NUCLEUS, Medcenter 3
Corner of Jefferson and Brook Streets
Louisville, KY, 40202, USA
Tel No: 1 5023277466
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: January 27, 2014; Accepted Date: February 03, 2014; Published Date: February 06, 2014
Citation: Adekeye JO, Ellis D, Kotwal GJ (2014) Significant Presence of Nontoxinogenic Coliforms in the Drinking Water Supply of the Mattingly Residential Area of St. Kitts Suggests that the Most Common Cause of Gastroenteritis could be Transmission due to Enteric Viruses in Drinking Water. Virol Mycol 3:126. doi:10.4172/2161-0517.1000126
Copyright: © 2014 Adekeye JO, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Safe drinking water is always a challenge in tropical areas. Several out breaks have been reported in the Caribbean Islands in the past year. In response to foreign students experiencing gastro intestinal problems, an investigation was conducted to determine if there is any fecal contamination that could transmit enteric viruses (example Rota virus and Noro virus), or enterotoxigenic E. coli. Water samples were collected from regions around the Island of St. Kitts. Several coliforms were isolated from one particular residential region of the Island called Mattingly Heights. DNA from these isolates was then extracted and tested by PCR to determine whether any toxigenic E. coli was present. None of the isolates was positive for toxigenic E. coli. A possible explanation, for the presence of E. coli, was provided by a local person overseeing, the water reservoir; supplying the region of Mattingly.The fecal contamination observed, was attributed by him to the monkeys inhabiting the trees surrounding the reservoir, although human fecal contamination cannot be ruled out from our studies. Other pathogens such as Giardia are possibly responsible for some of the gastrointestinal problems experienced by the tourists and the foreign students inhabiting the Island. Monitoring for toxigenic E. coli on an annual basis would ensure that serious bloody diarrhea will not affect the people residing or visiting the Island. This study confirms that viral gastroenteritis, referred to as stomach flu, which is common in the region could be a result of fecal contamination of the water supply as confirmed by the presence of nontoxigenic coliforms, which are indicators of fecal contamination.