alexa Significant Presence of Nontoxinogenic Coliforms in the Drinking Water Supply of the Mattingly Residential Area of St. Kitts Suggests that the Most Common Cause of Gastroenteritis could be Transmission due to Enteric Viruses in Drinking Water
ISSN: 2161-0517

Virology & Mycology
Open Access

Like us on:
OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations

700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Case Report

Significant Presence of Nontoxinogenic Coliforms in the Drinking Water Supply of the Mattingly Residential Area of St. Kitts Suggests that the Most Common Cause of Gastroenteritis could be Transmission due to Enteric Viruses in Drinking Water

James O. Adekeye, Denise Ellis and Girish J. Kotwal*

University of Medicine and Health Sciences, St. Kitts West Indies, USA

Corresponding Author:
Girish J. Kotwal
InFLaMed Inc. and Kotwal Bioconsulting
LLC, NUCLEUS, Medcenter 3
Corner of Jefferson and Brook Streets
Louisville, KY, 40202, USA
Tel No: 1 5023277466
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: January 27, 2014; Accepted Date: February 03, 2014; Published Date: February 06, 2014

Citation: Adekeye JO, Ellis D, Kotwal GJ (2014) Significant Presence of Nontoxinogenic Coliforms in the Drinking Water Supply of the Mattingly Residential Area of St. Kitts Suggests that the Most Common Cause of Gastroenteritis could be Transmission due to Enteric Viruses in Drinking Water. Virol Mycol 3:126. doi:10.4172/2161-0517.1000126

Copyright: © 2014 Adekeye JO, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Safe drinking water is always a challenge in tropical areas. Several out breaks have been reported in the Caribbean Islands in the past year. In response to foreign students experiencing gastro intestinal problems, an investigation was conducted to determine if there is any fecal contamination that could transmit enteric viruses (example Rota virus and Noro virus), or enterotoxigenic E. coli. Water samples were collected from regions around the Island of St. Kitts. Several coliforms were isolated from one particular residential region of the Island called Mattingly Heights. DNA from these isolates was then extracted and tested by PCR to determine whether any toxigenic E. coli was present. None of the isolates was positive for toxigenic E. coli. A possible explanation, for the presence of E. coli, was provided by a local person overseeing, the water reservoir; supplying the region of Mattingly.The fecal contamination observed, was attributed by him to the monkeys inhabiting the trees surrounding the reservoir, although human fecal contamination cannot be ruled out from our studies. Other pathogens such as Giardia are possibly responsible for some of the gastrointestinal problems experienced by the tourists and the foreign students inhabiting the Island. Monitoring for toxigenic E. coli on an annual basis would ensure that serious bloody diarrhea will not affect the people residing or visiting the Island. This study confirms that viral gastroenteritis, referred to as stomach flu, which is common in the region could be a result of fecal contamination of the water supply as confirmed by the presence of nontoxigenic coliforms, which are indicators of fecal contamination.

Keywords

Share This Page

Additional Info

Loading
Loading Please wait..
 
Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords