Silent Crisis: Epidemic Hypertension in Rural West AfricaEmmanuel Ato Williams1*, Daniel Ansong1, Stephen Alder2, Lowell Scott Benson2, Stephen James Campbell2, Katherine MacDonald2, Tadashi R Miya2, Isaac Boakye1, Joseph Marfo Boaheng1, Evans Xorse Amuzu1, Osei Asibey Owusu1, Isaac Nyanor1, Bernard Arhin1 and Ty Triston Dickerson3
- *Corresponding Author:
- Emmanuel Ato Williams
Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital
Directorate of Internal Medicine
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: January 24, 2014; Accepted Date: April 03, 2014; Published Date: April 05, 2014
Citation: Williams EA, Ansong D, Alder S, Benson LS, Campbell SJ, et al. (2014) Silent Crisis: Epidemic Hypertension in Rural West Africa. J Hypertens 3:147. doi:10.4172/2167-1095.1000147
Copyright: © 2014 Williams EA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permitsunrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Hypertension is the commonest modifiable risk factor of cardiovascular diseases and a major preventable cause of premature mortality. The worldwide prevalence of hypertension will increase by more than half by 2025; almost three-quarters of people with hypertension will be living in developing countries by 2025. We set out to evaluate the burden and correlates of adult hypertension in a rural Ghanaian community.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 438 adults aged ≥35 in the Barekese sub-district (estimated population 18,510). Socio-demographic characteristics, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors, blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric measurements were collected using standardized protocols.
Results: The proportion of hypertension and isolated systolic hypertension in the study population is 50.9% and 16.0% respectively. Only 21.2% were previously diagnosed as hypertensive; 25.8% of whom were not being treated. The proportion of the people with hypertension whose BPs were controlled (<140/90mmHg) was 13.5%. The mean systolic and diastolic BPs were 134.75 mmHg (SD: 24.68) and 83.01 mmHg (SD: 13.58). Obesity (Body Mass Index, BMI>30 kg/m2) was found in 13.24% of the population, with 6.7% being extremely obese (BMI>40 kg/m2). Factors such as increasing age and BMI positively correlated with BP.
Conclusion: There appears to be a high burden of hypertension in rural Ghana; the low detection, and poor management and control should make this a high priority. These findings indicate the need for urgent measures to promote health education that would facilitate prevention, early detection, and management of hypertension.