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Simple Devices to Facilitate the Immunization of Horse for Antivenom/Antitoxin Production | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2157-7579

Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology
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Research Article

Simple Devices to Facilitate the Immunization of Horse for Antivenom/Antitoxin Production

Akarin Intaramat1, Pachern Puthsorn2, Sansaneeyaporn Kittikajhon2, Hathaichanok Eamrod2 and Kavi Ratanabanangkoon1,2*

1Chulabhorn Research Institute and Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Bangkok, Thailand

2The Government Pharmaceutical Organization of Thailand,Thailaland

*Corresponding Author:
Kavi Ratanabanangkoon
PhD, Laboratory of Immunology
Chulabhorn Research Institute and Chulabhorn
Graduate Institute, Vipavadee Rangsit Hwy
Laksi, Bangkok 10210,Thailand
Tel: (662) 574-0622
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: May 30, 2015 Accepted date: August 10, 2015 Published date: August 12, 2015

Citation: Intaramat A, Puthsorn P, Kittikajhon S, Eamrod H, Ratanabanangkoon K, (2015) Simple Devices to Facilitate the Immunization of Horse for Antivenom/Antitoxin Production. J Veterinar Sci Technol 6:249. doi:10.4172/2157-7579.1000249

Copyright: © 2015 Ratanabanangkoon K, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


A multi-dose injector to facilitate the immunization of horse by the ‘low dose, low volume multi-site’ protocol in antivenom/antitoxin production is described. With the device, 20 subcutaneous injections of about 0.1 ml of CFA emulsified immunogen around the horse’s neck could be easily accomplished within 3 minutes without any stress to the animal. Also described is an apron to prevent blisters and infection at the injection sites caused by the horse rubbing the neck against stable and soil. These devices have been found to be very useful to the investigator and in reducing the pain and suffering of the horses during immunization for the production high potency antivenom/ antitoxin.


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