alexa Smart Water for Enhanced Oil Recovery by Nano-Filtration
ISSN:2157-7463

Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
Open Access

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Review Article

Smart Water for Enhanced Oil Recovery by Nano-Filtration

Remya Ravindran Nair*, Evgenia Protasova and Torleiv Bilstad
Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger, Kjell Arholmsgate 41, 4036 Stavanger, Norway
Corresponding Author : Remya Ravindran Nair
Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
University of Stavanger, Norway
Tel: +47-96816575
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: January 08, 2016; Accepted March 24, 2016; Published March 31, 2016
Citation:Nair RR, Protasova E, Bilstad T (2016) Smart Water for Enhanced Oil Recovery by Nano-Filtration. J Pet Environ Biotechnol 7:273. doi:10.4172/2157- 7463.1000273
Copyright: © 2016 Nair RR, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 

Abstract

Chemistry of injected water can modify the wettability behaviour of carbonate reservoirs. Wettability modification towards more water-wet reservoir rocks results in increased oil production. Smart water production by selective ionic water content is a major developing area in current enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Technical limitations for smart water production for EOR using seawater as feed for membranes are described in this paper. Desired characteristics of smart water for injection into carbonate reservoirs are low Na+ and Cl- and high divalent ion concentrations. Wettability alteration by smart water occurs due to symbiotic behaviour of Ca2+, SO4 2- and Mg2+ ions and the carboxylic material of the reservoir rock surface. Nano-filtration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) membranes were used for ion separation experiments. Retentate from NF contains the main constituents of smart water. Membrane performance was evaluated in terms of rejection under varying feed compositions and pressures. An analysis of general approaches for water injection processes from seawater is discussed. This paper delivers an economic framework for evaluation of the water injection process by including major technical and economical elements. Main criteria considered in this research were how to decrease monovalent ion rejection. This was achieved by increasing divalent ion concentration by spiking feed water with selected chemicals. Results showed that a decrease in retention of monovalent ions was achieved by increasing multivalent ion concentration in the feed. A challenge of smart water production is the high dissolved solids content (TDS) in retentate from NF. Three options to dilute the retentate were evaluated; i.e., combinations of NF and RO, MSFD and fresh water. The most feasible process is a combination of NF and RO, with an energy consumption of 3.8 kWh/m3.

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