Statistical and Mathematical Concepts and Principles Applicable to Uncertainty Calculations for the Measurement of In Vivo Bone Lead by 109Cd K X Ray Fluorescence
José A. A. de Brito*
Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz, Campus da Granja, Monte de Caparica, 2829-511 Caparica, Portugal
- *Corresponding Author:
- José A. A. de Brito
Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz
Campus da Granja, Monte de Caparica
2829-511 Caparica, Portugal
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: November 25, 2011; Accepted Date: January 12, 2012; Published Date: January 16, 2012
Citation: de Brito JAA (2012) Statistical and Mathematical Concepts and Principles Applicable to Uncertainty Calculations for the Measurement of in vivo Bone Lead by 109cd K X Ray Fluorescence. J Biom Biostat 3:133. doi:10.4172/2155-6180.1000133
Copyright: © 2012 de Brito JAA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
This work discusses the statistical and mathematical concepts and principles applicable to in vivo 109Cd K X Ray Fluorescence measurements (109Cd KXRF) of lead in human bone. The primary aim of this paper is to examine divergent views about the quantitative methods applied to estimate in vivo bone lead concentrations and their uncertainty when using the 109Cd KXRF technique. The emphasis is on the potential effect of covariance between quantities of interest on the result of an in vivo measurement of bone lead by 109Cd KXRF, a question which has received little attention in view of the long standing problem of why the average measurement uncertainty is less than the standard deviation of repeated measurements.