Stronglyoidiasis Infection: A Review
Strongyloidiasis is a worldwide parasitic disease. Among the diverse species of Strongyloides, only the following are of importance to man: S. Stercoralis, S. Fulleborni and S. Fullerboni-like. Eventhough S. Stercoralis is an intestinal helminth. Strongyloidiasis is a systemic infection that can affect, beside the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, CNS, liver and biliary tract, pancreas, genitourinary tract and skin. Strongyloides stercoralis has a unique and complex life cycle. Recent evidence has suggested a role for the cytokine, IL-22, during helminths infection and in maintaining mucosal barrier function. IL- 22 may therefore play an important role in the relationship between the mammalian immune response, gut microbiota and helminths infections. Death from strongyloidosis can result from hyperinfection or disseminated disease. Diagnosing strongyloidiasis may be difficult, and eventhough the parasitological stool examination is the most used diagnostic test, sometimes larvae cannot be identified. Management of S. Stercoalis infection includes the aim of eradication of the infection. The drug like albendazole, ivermectin, thibenzimdazole use for the treatment. A high index of suspicion should be maintained by clinicians treating patients in endemic area presenting with new onset wheezing, acute respiratory distress and/or gram negative sepsis to prevent the serious complication of strongyloides hyperinfection and dissemination. Strongyloidiasis hyperinfection syndrome carries a high mortality approaching 100 percent; mortality with therapy exceeds 25 percent.