Study of Quality Characteristics and Efficacy of Extraction Solvent/Technique on the Antioxidant Activity of Bitter Gourd Seed
- *Corresponding Author:
- Fozia Anjum
Department of Chemistry
Government College University
Faisalabad, 3800, Pakistan
Fax: + 92-41-9200764
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: November 02, 2012; Accepted Date: December 14, 2012; Published Date: December 25, 2012
Citation: Anjum F, Shahid M, Bukhari SA, Anwar S, Latif S (2013) Study of Quality Characteristics and Efficacy of Extraction Solvent/Technique on the Antioxidant Activity of Bitter Gourd Seed. J Food Process Technol 4:205. doi: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000205
Copyright: © 2013 Anjum F, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Bitter Gourd Seed (BGS) oil of two varieties were evaluated for physicochemical composition, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities however BGS residue was appraised for proximate composition, mineral contents and the efficacy of extracting solvents; ethanol, 80% ethanol and water; extraction techniques; shaking, reflux and ultrasound on antioxidant activity of BGS extract was evaluated. Significantly (P<0.05) higher oil and protein content was observed in the BGS-1 (40.8 and 19.2% respectively) as compared to BGS-2 (31.5 and 14.9% respectively). Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed between their physicochemical parameters and oxidative stability. BGS oils of both varities were rich in eleostearic, followed by stearic, and oleic acids. The concentration of α-tocopherol was detected significantly (P<0.05) higher in BGS-1 oil as against the BGS-2 oil. A higher amount of antioxidant extract yield, flavonoid contents, phenolic contents, metal chelating and free radical scavenging activity were observed in the 80% ethanolic extract of both BGS under ultrasound treatment. Furthermore, BGS-1 showed remarkably higher level of antioxidants as compared to BGS-2. The seed oil of both varieties showed noteworthy antimicrobial activity against battery of selected bacteria and fungi strains, assessed by disc diffusion and measurement of minimum inhibitory by micro dilution method. Negligible hemolytic activity was recorded against human and bovine erythrocytes by BGS-1 variety.