alexa Sulfur Metabolism and Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids: I- Molecular Effectors
ISSN: 2167-0501

Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access
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Review Article

Sulfur Metabolism and Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids: I- Molecular Effectors

Lionella Palego1*, Laura Betti2 and Gino Giannaccini2
1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, via Savi 10, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
2Department of Pharmacy, via Bonanno 6, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Corresponding Author : Lionella Palego
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
University of Pisa
Tel: 0039-0502219518/535
Fax: 0039-0502219609;
E-mail: [email protected]
Received November 21, 2014; Accepted December 27, 2014; Published January 03, 2015
Citation: Palego L, Betti L, Giannaccini G (2015) Sulfur Metabolism and Sulfur- Containing Amino Acids: I- Molecular Effectors. Biochem Pharmacol (Los Angel) 4:158. doi:10.4172/2167-0501.1000158
Copyright: © 2015 Palego L et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 

Abstract

The biology of the macro-element sulfur (S) is attracting an ever growing attention concerning cell physiology and human health. Sulfur metabolism works at the interplay between genetics and epigenetic as well as in the maintain of cell redox homeostasis. Indeed, unbalanced levels of S compounds in the body are actually under investigation as vulnerability factors and/or indicators of impaired cell oxidation state in a variety of human diseases. The purpose of this article is to overview some main S metabolic pathways in humans and their relevance in cell physiology and pathology. Since S is an essential nutrient for life, we first present its distribution and significance in the biosphere, focusing then on S metabolic fluxes which encompass S-containing amino acids (S-AAs), as well as sulfoconjugation, the synthesis and release of H2S together the formation of iron-sulfur cluster proteins. Despite the vastness of the topic, we would like to emphasize herein that the study of S networks in human pathology, especially in complex, multi-factorial disorders, deserves greater impulsion and deepening.

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