Symptoms at 2 Months after Mild TBI: are they Related to Brain Injury? The Results of a Cluster Analysis
- *Corresponding Author:
- Torgeir Hellstrom
Depertment of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Oslo University Hospital HF, Pb 4956 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway
Tel: + 47 22119721
Fax: + 47 23027455
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: June 11, 2013; Accepted Date: June 27, 2013; Published Date: June 30, 2013
Citation: Hellstrom T, Vikane E, Skouen JS, Bautz-Holter E, Roe A, et al. (2013) Symptoms at 2 Months after Mild TBI: are they Related to Brain Injury? The Results of a Cluster Analysis. Int J Phys Med Rehabil 1:143. doi: 10.4172/2329-9096.1000143
Copyright: © 2013 Hellstrom T, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objective: This study sought to explore whether subgroups of patients with mild TBI could be identified by their symptom profile according to cluster analysis. We also investigated whether these clusters are uniquely associated with structural brain damage as well as their relationship to anxiety and depression, other health complaints, functioning and participation in work. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of patients with mild TBI who were registered at baseline and 6-8 weeks after injury. Results: A total of 270 patients were included. K-mean cluster analyses were conducted to describe groups of subjects with similar profiles of responses to the Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ). The four-cluster solution revealed one cluster with a low level of symptoms (low), one with a generally high symptom level (high), one cluster characterised by a high level of symptoms regarding cognitive functions (cognitive) and one cluster with somatic and frustration dominating symptoms (somatic). No significant differences in symptom level (mean score on RPQ) were revealed between subjects with and without radiological findings on brain scans (p=0.34). The “high” cluster group scored significantly higher than clusters 1, 2 and 3 in terms of both depression and anxiety but significantly lower on the GOSE. Cluster 2 scored significantly lower for health complaints in comparison to the other clusters. Conclusion: Subgroups of patients with mild TBI could be identified according to their symptom profile using cluster analysis. Patients with minor symptoms had a reduced risk for a positive finding on CT or MRI, whereas the high symptom level group struggled to return to work and demonstrated high levels of anxiety, depression and disability.