alexa Synthesis of Nanoparticles Using Euphorbia prostrata Ex
ISSN: 2157-7439

Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
Open Access

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Research Article

Synthesis of Nanoparticles Using Euphorbia prostrata Extract Reveals a Shift from Apoptosis to G0/G1 Arrest in Leishmania donovani

Abdul Abduz Zahir1#, Indira Singh Chauhan2#, Asokan Bagavan1, Chinnaperumal Kamaraj1, Gandhi Elango1, Jai Shankar4, Nidhi Arjaria4, Mohana Roopan3, Abdul Abdul Rahuman1* and Neeloo Singh2*

1Unit of Nanotechnology and Bioactive Natural Products, Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam-632509, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India

2Biochemistry Division, CSIR Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow- 226031, India

3Organic & Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratory, Organic Chemistry Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore-632 014, Tamil Nadu, India

4Transmission Electron Microscopy, CSIR Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, M.G. Marg Lucknow-226001, India

#Contributed equally as joint first authors

*Corresponding Author:
Abdul Abdul Rahuman
Unit of Nanotechnology and Bioactive Natural Products
Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology
C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam-632509
Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India
Tel: +91-9442310155
Fax: +91-041-72269487
E-mail: [email protected]

Neeloo Singh
Unit of Nanotechnology and Bioactive Natural Products
Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology
C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam-632509
Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India
Tel: +91-9415002065
Fax: +91-522-22623405
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: June 12, 2014; Accepted Date: July 25, 2014; Published Date: July 30, 2014

Citation: Zahir AA, Chauhan IS, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Elango G, et al. (2014) Synthesis of Nanoparticles Using Euphorbia prostrata Extract Reveals a Shift from Apoptosis to G0/G1 Arrest in Leishmania donovani. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 5:213. doi:10.4172/2157-7439.1000213

Copyright: © 2014 Zahir AA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 

Abstract

The aim of the present investigation was to synthesize silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) using the aqueous leaves extract of Euphorbia prostrata as antileishmanial agents and to explore the mechanism of induced cell death. In vitro antileishmanial activity of synthesized NPs was tested against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani by alamar Blue® cell viability reagent and propidium iodide uptake assay. The effective leishmanicidal activity of synthesized Ag NPs was further confirmed by cell cycle progression, externalized phosphatidylserine, DNA fragmentation assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, intracellular non-protein thiols and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the treated parasites. TEM analysis of the synthesized Ag NPs and TiO2 NPs showed spherical shape with an average size of 12.82 ± 2.50 and 83.22 ± 1.50 nm, respectively. Ag NPs was found to be the most active agent against Leishmania parasites after 24 h exposure with IC50 value of 14.94 μg/mL. A significant increase in G0/ G1 phase of the cell cycle with subsequent decrease in S and G2/M phases was observed when compared to control and thus confirming the growth inhibitory effect of synthesized Ag NPs. Decreased ROS level was also observed which could be responsible for caspase independent shift from apoptosis (G0/G1 arrest) to massive necrosis. High molecular weight DNA fragmentation as a positive consequence of necrotic cell death was also visualized. In the present study, the unique trypanothione/trypanothione reductase (TR) system of Leishmania cells was significantly inhibited by synthesized Ag NPs was reported. The green synthesized Ag NPs may provide promising leads for the development of cost effective and safer alternative treatment against visceral leishmaniasis.

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