Systematic Review on Prevalence for Autism Spectrum Disorder with Respect to Gender and Socio-Economic StatusBappaditya Adak1 and Santoshi Halder2*
- *Corresponding Author:
- Santoshi Halder
Associate Professor, Department of Education
University of Calcutta, India
E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
Received Date: February 02, 2017; Accepted Date: February 06, 2017; Published Date: February 13, 2017
Citation: Adak B, Halder S (2017) Systematic Review on Prevalence for Autism Spectrum Disorder with Respect to Gender and Socio-Economic Status. J Ment Disord Treat 3: 133. doi:10.4172/2471-271X.1000133
Copyright: © 2017 Adak B, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The prevalence of Autism Spectrum disorder has been increased rapidly worldwide in last few years. However most of the estimation comes from developed regions of western countries. There are no reliable and consistent data from non-western or non-affluent countries.
Aim: The primary aim of this systematic review was to synthesise the results of wide range of epidemiological studies to estimate prevalence of ASD with respect to gender and socio-economic status (SES). Secondarily, available studies were analyzed with identified themes for assessing the trend of these studies.
Methods: Based on pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria epidemiological reports were identified by internet search and recent relevant papers were included (2005-2015).
Results: 27 eligible studies were identified for review of which 22 estimated Autism spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and 4 concentrated on typical Autism. Most of the studies used special educational and mainstream school records (N=11) for data extraction. Overall mean age of study samples ranged between ages 2-17 years. International classification of disabilities (ICD)-9 and 10 criteria as well as Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM)-III and IV criteria were retained for diagnostic assessment. The average prevalence of these twenty seven studies was 91.92 per 10,000 populations. The reported prevalence of ASD varied substantially by country and continent, use of methodology, assessment tools, gender, geographic region and Socioeconomic status (SES).
Conclusion: Recent studies provided higher estimation and prevalence rate in developed or much affluent countries as well as urban areas. Also Parental high SES was found positively associated with prevalence of ASD. Analyses suggest more strong instruments and awareness is needed. Also more population based investigations is needed in rural as well as developing countries for revealing clear picture of this disability.