Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease in MenEmmanuela Quental Callou de Sa2*, Francisco Carleial Feijó de Sá1, Augusto Saboia Neto1 and Juliana Viana Pinheiro1
- *Corresponding Author:
- Emmanuela Quental Callou de Sá
Universidade Federal do Cariri
Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: July 20, 2014; Accepted date: August 17, 2014; Published date: August 24, 2014
Citation: Callou de Sá EQ, Feijó de Sá FC, Neto AS, Pinheiro JV (2014) Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease in Men. J Steroids Hormon Sci 5:142. doi:10.4172/2157-7536.1000142
Copyright: © 2014 Callou de Sa, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
In this century cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common isolated cause of death in developed countries. Many studies have suggested that men with low testosterone levels present higher incidence of components of metabolic syndrome and are at a greater risk of developing CVD.
Testosterone can affect the development of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries. While this androgen seems to have a cardioprotective effect by benefiting endothelial function, inducing vasodilation, and reducing fat mass, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation, it also appears to increase endothelin, thromboxane A2 and reactive oxygen species and renal smooth muscle cells.
The relation between testosterone and coronary disease in men has been the focus of study of many authors. Most studies point to a neutral and/or protective effect of endogenous testosterone in male cardiovascular health. Unfortunately, many intervention studies have not been able to confirm this effect with testosterone therapy.
More studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of testosterone in cardiovascular health and to evaluate androgen receptor polymorphisms and their physiological responses to testosterone.