alexa The Acute Effects of Un-ionized Ammonia on Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
ISSN: 2150-3508

Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
Open Access

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Research Article

The Acute Effects of Un-ionized Ammonia on Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Abdullah Salim Al-Zaidan*

Biodiversity Conservation Department, Kuwait Environment Public Authority (KEPA), State Government Office, Shuwaikh Industrial, Kuwait

Corresponding Author:
Abdullah Salim Al-Zaidan
Director of Biodiversity Conservation Department
Kuwait Environment Public Authority (KEPA)
State Government Office, Shuwaikh Industrial, Kuwait
Tel: (+965) 2220-8310
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: July 13, 2017; Accepted Date: July 20, 2017; Published Date: July 29, 2017

Citation: Al-Zaidan AS (2017) The Acute Effects of Un-ionized Ammonia on Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish Aqua J 8:212. doi: 10.4172/2150-3508.1000212

Copyright: © 2017 Al-Zaidan AS. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Zebrafish is a commonly used species in toxicology studies investigations such as molecular genetics, histopathology and developmental biology. A toxicity test was conducted to investigate the effects of toxic ammonia (NH3) in relation to time and concentration by establishing a measurable endpoints for chemical exposure and monitoring the biological responses on zebrafish exposed to high levels of toxic ammonia concentration using ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) as E1: 17.21 mg/l, E2: 24.51 mg/l, E3: 25.81 mg/l, E4: 32.11 mg/l and E5: 38.91 mg/l NH3-N at 24 hr, 48 hrs and 72 hrs periods. Fish exposed to the high levels of toxic ammonia exhibited hematological, histopathological and molecular alterations to the gills, liver and kidney at all exposure periods 24 hrs, 48 hrs and 72 hrs. The interrelation between the hematological, histopathological and gene expression have proven to be time and dose dependent having a linear relation under the influence of high levels of toxic ammonia exposure. Such hematological and histopathological changes observed in the gills, liver and kidney of zebrafish in the present study indicates that the fish were responding to the direct effects of the toxic ammonia and secondary effects caused by stress.


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