The Associations of Arcussenilis with Age and Metabolic AbnormalitiesSteven B Leichter1*, Jeff Johnson2, Michael Ammerman2 and Susan Egbert2
- *Corresponding Author:
- Steven B Leichter
Clinical Professor of Internal Medicine
Mercer University School of Medicine
Columbus, GA, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: July 05, 2013; Accepted date: September 23, 2013; Published date: September 28, 2013
Citation: Leichter SB, Johnson J, Ammerman M, Egbert S (2013) The Associations of Arcus Senilis with Age and Metabolic Abnormalities. J Diabetes Metab 4:293. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000293
Copyright: © 2013 Leichter SB, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
From a voluntary ophthalmic screening program, involving 1876 people, carried out in Columbus, Georgia, 273 (14.6%) were found to have arcussenilis. 973 (51.9%) of the total population screened, were found to have evidence of a high risk of hypertension, hyperglycemia, or hyperlipidemia, and were invited to participate in further assessments. 623 (64.0%) of these high risk subjects, including all of the patients with arcussenilis, agreed to further testing. 70% of the subjects has abnormal BMI, 64% had abnormal blood pressure, and 64% had evidence of abnormal fasting blood sugar, either by elevated fasting blood sugar or Hgb A1c > 6%. A minority had abnormality of LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, or fasting serum triglycerides. Comparisons were then made between the 273 patients who had arcussenilis versus the 350 patients, who did not. Patients, who had arcussenilis has lower BMI values (32.6 ± 0.4 vs. 34.6 ± 0.4 kg/m2, p=0.005) and higher fasting blood sugar (133.6 ± 3.6 vs. 125.7 ± 2.3 mg/ dl, p=0.0488) than those who did not have arcus. By multi-variate analysis, increasing age (p<001), fasting blood sugar (p<0.004), Hgb A1c (p<0.01), systolic (p<0.007) and diastolic (p=0.02) blood pressure, and decreasing BMI (p=0.012) were associated with increasing prevalence of arcussenilis. Fasting LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL/HDL ratios, or serum triglycerides showed no association with the prevalence of arcus. We conclude that hyperglycemia and hypertension, but not hyperlipidemia, are the primary metabolic characteristics associated with the occurrence of arcussenilis, and age appears to have a significant association with the occurrence of arcus. These observations suggest that older individuals, who are found they have arcussenilis, should be screened for evidence of hyperglycemia.