alexa The Bimodal Nature of Neurovascular Coupling: Slow Toni
ISSN: 1747-0862

Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine
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The Bimodal Nature of Neurovascular Coupling: Slow Tonic and Rapid Phasic Responses are Separately Controlled by Specific Astrocyte Metabotropic and Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors

Baslow MH* and Guilfoyle DN

Center for Biomedical Imaging and Neuromodulation, Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, 140 Old Orangeburg Road, Orangeburg, NY, 10962, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Dr. Morris H Baslow
Center for Biomedical Imaging and Neuromodulation
Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research
140 Old Orangeburg Road, Orangeburg, NY, 10962, USA
Tel: 845 398 5573
Fax: 845 398 5472
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: April 25, 2017; Accepted Date: May 02, 2017; Published Date: May 05, 2017

Citation: Baslow MH, Guilfoyle DN (2017) The Bimodal Nature of Neurovascular Coupling: Slow Tonic and Rapid Phasic Responses are Separately Controlled by Specific Astrocyte Metabotropic and Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors. J Mol Genet Med 11:266 doi: 10.4172/1747-0862.1000266

Copyright: © 2017 Baslow MH, et al . This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

 

Abstract

Neurons, by virtue of their complex and continuously changing signaling roles in brain, must be able to regulate access to energy in order to maintain their ability to communicate meaningful frequency-encoded information. This is accomplished by release of neurotransmitters to astrocytes that in turn signal the vascular system to increase cerebral blood flow (CBF). This process has been termed “neurovascular coupling” (NVC). It has also been observed that NVC is bimodal in that there are two separate mechanisms for control of CBF. One type is rapid [phasic] in response to changes in glutamatergic synaptic activity and release of glutamate (Glu), K+ and nitric oxide (NO). Uptake of Glu and K+ by astrocytes induces Ca2+ waves activating regional astrocyte syncytium have to liberate prostaglandins which in turn dilate capillaries by relaxing surrounding pericytes. The NO dilates arterioles by relaxing surrounding smooth muscle cells. These agents acting in concert sharply increase CBF within 1-3 seconds. The other type is slow [tonic] reflecting ongoing neuronal metabolic activity of all neuron types independent of changes in synaptic activity or astrocyte Ca2+ waves and eliciting modest oscillations in CBF in 10’s of seconds. In this review, we describe two neuronal signaling mechanisms that match the criteria for phasic and for tonic regulation of CBF. The difference is being the nature and source of the “Glu” released and of their targeted astrocyte receptors. Dependence on synaptic activity limits phasic responses to gray matter, but tonic responses can regulate CBF in both gray matter and white matter and may be the primary regulator of CBF in white matter.

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