alexa The Brain-Gut Axis: From Pathophysiology to Possible Future Strategies of Treatment
ISSN: 2168-975X

Brain Disorders & Therapy
Open Access

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Review Article

The Brain-Gut Axis: From Pathophysiology to Possible Future Strategies of Treatment

Simone Vigneri*
Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience (BioNeC), University of Palermo, Italy
Corresponding Author : Simone Vigneri, MD
Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience (BioNeC)
University of Palermo, Via Gaetano La Loggia 1, 90129, Palermo, Italy
Tel: +39 091 6555105
Fax: +39 091 6555102
E-mail: [email protected]
Received June 17, 2014; Accepted August 04, 2014; Published August 14, 2014
Citation: Vigneri S (2014) The Brain-Gut Axis: From Pathophysiology to Possible Future Strategies of Treatment. Brain Disord Ther 3:137. doi:10.4172/2168-975X.1000137
Copyright: © 2014 Vigneri S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

The enteric nervous system (ENS) controls and modulates various functions of the digestive tract such as motility, exocrine and endocrine secretion, local microcirculation, inflammation and neuroimmunity. This system is autonomous from the central nervous system (CNS), although they share many neurons and neurotransmitters. The CNS may exert a modulatory role on ENS through brainstem and subcortical areas, peripheral and autonomic fibers. The brain-gut axis is the complex system regulating the interactions and mutual influences between the nervous system and the gut. This axis is divided into various levels through receptors, afferents, integration centers, efferents and effectors, and exploits multiple messengers belonging to the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. The proper functioning of this apparatus is essential in intestinal physiology, its involvement has been recognized as one of the leading pathophysiological basis of many digestive disorders and a target for current and future therapeutical approaches.

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