The Changing Epidemiology of Urolithiasis in Pediatric Patients
Judy N. Chen, Laura Malaga-Dieguez and Howard Trachtman*
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Howard Trachtman
NYU Langone Medical Center
CTSI, Room #110, 227 E 30th Street, New York, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: January 16, 2014; Accepted Date: March 17, 2014; Published Date: March 20, 2014
Citation: Chen JN, Dieguez LM, Trachtman H (2014) The Changing Epidemiology of Urolithiasis in Pediatric Patients. J Nephrol Therapeutic S11: S11-006. doi:10.4172/2161-0959.S11-006
Copyright: © 2014 Chen JN, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The etiology of kidney stones is divided in three broad categories: (i) Metabolic abnormalities that lead to excessive urinary excretion of solutes those are susceptible to crystallization or reduced excretion of inhibitors of crystallization (ii) Anatomic defects that cause disturbances in voiding or urinary stasis (iii) Idiopathic. The laboratory assessment has focused on 24-hour urine collections to measure excretion of calcium, oxalate, citrate, cystine, uric acid, magnesium, and creatinine, selective blood tests, and imaging studies to determine renal structure and function. This article reviews recent data suggesting that the incidence of kidney stones is rising in children and adolescents.