The Concept of Biological Activity and Its Application to Biological PhenomenaOtsuka J*
JO Institute of Biophysics, Higashi-Ohizumi, Nerima-ku, Tokyo, Japan
- *Corresponding Author:
- Otsuka J
JO Institute of Biophysics
Higashi-Ohizumi 6-49-18, Nerima-ku
Tokyo, 178-0063, Japan
Tel: 813 3921 1466
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: January 30, 2017; Accepted date: February 03, 2017; Published date: February 10, 2017
Citation: Otsuka J (2017) The Concept of Biological Activity and Its Application to Biological Phenomena. J Phys Chem Biophys 7:235. doi: 10.4172/2161-0398.1000235
Copyright: © 2017 Otsuka J. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Although the life has been a mystery for most physicists since the problem of Maxwell's demon, this mystery is resolved by considering the following characteristics of an organism; the self-reproduction by taking material and energy sources from the outside on the basis of its genetic information, and the selection of self-reproduced organisms to maintain and further improve the genetic information. According to the knowledge of molecular biology revealed recently, the molecular route to accomplish the self-reproduction is evaluated energetically, and a new thermodynamic quantity of biological activity is proposed for characterizing the state of an organism in terms of acquired energy, stored energy and systematization. This quantity is not only compatible with the law of thermodynamics but also reflects the changes in genome and in the mode of gene expression. Thus, the biological activity becomes a useful measure for analyzing various biological phenomena quantitatively. This is illustrated for the large-scale evolution by generating new genes from gene duplication and for the estimation of the energy required for the development of a multicellular organism. The origin of life is also discussed from the aspect of biological activity and the extended view of evolution.