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The Development of Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-9627

Journal of Clinical Research & Bioethics
Open Access

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Research Article

The Development of Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders

Ray Greek1* and Lawrence A. Hansen2

1Americans for Medical Advancement, 2251 Refugio Rd, Goleta, CA 93117, USA

2Professor of Neuroscience and Pathology, Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, Mail Code 062, 9500 Gilman Drive (MTF 351), La Jolla, CA 92093-0624, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Ray Greek
Americans for Medical Advancement
2251 Refugio Rd, Goleta
CA 93117, USA
Tel: 805-685-6812
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: August 14, 2012; Accepted date: September 28, 2012; Published date: October 04, 2012

Citation: Greek R, Hansen LA (2012) The Development of Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders. J Clinic Res Bioeth 3:137. doi: 10.4172/2155-9627.1000137

Copyright: © 2012 Greek R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


The development of deep brain stimulation has revolutionized care for patients with movement disorders like Parkinson’s disease. Many areas of science contributed to this technology but one area, the use of animal models, has been cited as vital. We review these claims as well as the history of the discoveries that eventually led to deep brain stimulation in an attempt to ascertain: 1) the contributions of animal models; 2) the contributions from humanbased research and observation; and the role of advances in the engineering, physics, and computer science. We distinguish between advances and discoveries that were, or at least appear to be, dependent on animal models and those where animals were involved but that could have occurred, and/or were occurring simultaneously, with humanbased research. We conclude that animal-based research played a role in defining gross anatomy in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but that essentially all subsequent advances were human-based or secondary to advances in the physical and applied sciences. This has historical, funding, and ethical implications as the development of deep brain stimulation is cited as an example of the importance of animal-based research and a reason for continued social and financial support of animal models in general as opposed to clinical research, other human-based research modalities, and the various disciplines of the physical and applied sciences.


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