The Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on Thymic and Splenic Immune Functions and Role of Recovery (Biochemical and Histological study)
- *Corresponding Author:
- Zeinab A. Hassan
Department of histology and cell biology, Faculty of Medicine
Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt and associate professor of anatomy
Faculty of medicine Tibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: September 09, 2014; Accepted Date: September 30, 2014; Published Date: October 02, 2014
Citation: Hassan ZA, Arafa MH, Soliman WI, Atteia HH, Al-Saeed HF (2014) The Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on Thymic and Splenic Immune Functions and Role of Recovery (Biochemical and Histological study). J Cytol Histol 5:283. doi:10.4172/2157-7099.1000283
Copyright: © 2014 Hassan ZA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer, is used in modern nutrition to improve food palatability. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the effect of MSG on thymus as well as spleen structures and functions. Also, to evaluate the possibility of recovery after cessation of administration. Adult male rats were divided into three groups: control, MSG (3 g MSG/kg body weight daily for 8 weeks by oral gavages), and Recovery (MSG for same period and then left untreated for additional 4 weeks). The results showed that MSG treatments significantly increased serum interleukin (IL)-1β as well as thymic and splenic malondialdehyde and decreased serum levels of IL-10 and also reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and both catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in the thymus and spleen. Histological examination showed that MSG induced a remarkable disruption in the lobular architecture of the thymus with marked decrease of the T lymphocytes with darkly stained nuclei and dilated blood sinusoid in the cortical region. Medullary region were enlarged and repopulated with small lymphocytes and dilated blood sinusoids. The cortical-medullary differentiation was difficult to be determined. Small sized splenic lymphatic follicles with absence of germinal centers and large congested blood vessels were also noticed. The differentiation between the red and the white pulps was indistinct. Recovery groups showed preserved thymic lobular architecture with repopulation of the cortical thymocytes enclosing the paler staining medulla .Splenic lymphatic follicles of different sizes with absence of germinal centers were noticed. Marginal zone is differentiated from the red pulp. Immunohistochemical staining of MSG group demonstrated a marked decrease in CD3-positive T-lymphocytes in both thymus and spleen that significantly increased in recovery group. Taken together, the data showed that MSG consumption may have immunotoxic effects on the thymus and spleen of adult rats which is reversible but the normal structure of the spleen would need time to be regained. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.