The Etiology of Bladder Cancer and its Prevention
Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee 38152, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- King-Thom Chung
Department of Biological Sciences
The University of Memphis, Memphis
Tennessee 38152, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: July 29, 2013; Accepted Date: October 22, 2013; Published Date: October 24, 2013
Citation: Chung KT (2013) The Etiology of Bladder Cancer and its Prevention. J Cancer Sci Ther 5:346-361. doi:10.4172/1948-5956.1000226
Copyright: © 2013 Chung KT. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Urinary bladder cancer (UBC), which rinks ninth in worldwide cancer incidence, is a type of malignant growth of abnormal cells. UBC can be caused by: (A) Inhalation of cigarette smoke, smoke from cooking fume hoods, industrial/environmental carcinogens, volatiles of coal tar, and diesel exhaust. (B) Drugs such as cyclophosphazine, chloronaphazine, phenacetin, nitrosamines, and herbal remedies like aristolochic acids. (C) Contact of chlorinated water or hair dyes. (D) Ingestion of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) and/or arsenic.E.Infections of Schistosoma haematobium (schizosomiasis), Enterobacteria (Cystitis) and Papilloma viruses. F.Endogenous carcinogens such as tryptophan metabolites and other amines.G.Hereditary factors such as acetylator of the N-acetyltransferase, and mutations or malfunction of oncogenes/suppressor genes. Prevention of bladder cancer should include cessation of smoking, minimization of exposure to cooking fumes, and elimination of industrial and environmental carcinogens. Other measures worth considering include: (A) Intake of fruits, vegetables, soy products, vitamins, green tea, and decrease of fat consumption. Ingestion of food that isrich in selenium, garlic, lycopene, linoleic acid, various vitamins, gallic acid, and betulinic acid, etc. (B) Intake of non-nutritional factorsincluding astaxanthin, procatachuic, diosmin, hesperidin, 1,4-phenylene diisothiocyanate, crytoxanthin, indomechacin, and silibinin, etc. (C) Administration of drugs such as difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), no steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), astorvastatin, oitipraz, and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Retinoic acid in combination with ketoconazole was reported to be helpful to bladder cancer patients. In conclusion, the management of interplay of multiple factors of cause, cure and prevention, is the major concern of UBC.