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ISSN: 2155-6180

Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics
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  • Research Article   
  • J Biom Biostat 2018, Vol 9(2): 394
  • DOI: 10.4172/2155-6180.1000394

The Human Hand and Foot in Evolution and Art: The Effects of Wearing Footwear

Clifford Qualls1, Peter Evans2, Antonio Perciaccante3, Raffaella Bianucci4,5,6, Donatella Lippi7 and Otto Appenzeller8*
1Health Sciences Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM, USA
2, 26 Windsor Cres Surrey Hills, VIC3127, Melbourne, Australia
3Department of Medicine, San Giovanni di Dio Hospital, , Gorizia, Italy
4Warwick Medical School, Microbiology and Infection Division, University of Warwick, United Kingdom
5Legal Medicine Section, Department of Public Health and Paediatric Sciences, University of Turin, Italy
6Laboratoire d’Anthropologie bio-culturelle, , Droit, Etique& Sante (Ades), Faculte de Medecine de Marseille, France
7Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Italy
8New Mexico Health Enhancement and Marathon Clinics (NMHEMC) Research foundation, , Albuquerque, NM 87122, USA
*Corresponding Author : Otto Appenzeller, New Mexico Health Enhancement and Marathon Clinics (NMHEMC) Research foundation, Albuquerque, NM 87122, USA, Tel: 5517-981666732, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Mar 12, 2018 / Accepted Date: Mar 27, 2018 / Published Date: Apr 04, 2018

Abstract

The structures of the human hands and feet are shaped by evolution and its effects on the brain, skeleton and other structures, and on behavior. We used measurements obtained of hands and feet from living humans in Europe, the Americas (South and North) and Australia and images of hands and feet in cave art, paintings, and photographs obtained from the Web including some from Africa. We used the ratios of the third finger/width of hand and second toe/width of foot. We hypothesized that hand ratios would not have changed over millennia whereas, because of the use of footwear and mechanical locomotion, the ratios obtained from feet could have changed significantly. Here we report that statistical analyses and modeling confirmed our initial hypothesis.

Keywords: Hands; Feet; Spine; Footwear

Citation: Qualls C, Evans P, Perciaccante A, Bianucci R, Lippi D, et al. (2018) The Human Hand and Foot in Evolution and Art: The Effects of Wearing Footwear . J Biom Biostat 9: 398. Doi: 10.4172/2155-6180.1000394

Copyright: © 2018 Qualls C, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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