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The Importance of Image Guidance during Epidural Injections: Rates of Incorrect Needle Placement during Non-Image Guided Epidural Injections | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2165-7939

Journal of Spine
Open Access

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Review Article

The Importance of Image Guidance during Epidural Injections: Rates of Incorrect Needle Placement during Non-Image Guided Epidural Injections

Joshua H. Levin1*, Ryan Wetzel2 and Matthew W. Smuck3
1Aurora Advanced Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA
2Midlands Orthopaedics, Columbia, SC, USA
3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, Redwood City, CA, USA
Corresponding Author : Joshua H. Levin
Aurora Advanced Healthcare
Milwaukee, WI, USA
Tel: 804-301-0866
Fax: 262-532-1554
E-mail: [email protected]
Received November 25, 2011; Accepted February 17, 2012; Published February 20, 2012
Citation: Levin JH, Wetzel R, Smuck MW (2012) The Importance of Image Guidance during Epidural Injections: Rates of Incorrect Needle Placement during Non-Image Guided Epidural Injections. J Spine 1:113. doi:10.4172/2165-7939.1000113
Copyright: © 2012 Levin JH, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Background: Epidural steroid injections are commonly-performed procedures used to treat several spinal conditions. Traditionally, these procedures have been performed without image guidance. However, a large number of blindly-performed injections are inaccurate with needle placement outside the epidural space. The purpose of the current article was to review the data on inaccuracy rates of non-image guided epidural injections.

Results and Conclusions: 9-52% of non-image guided caudal epidural injections are outside the epidural space. 7-30% on non-image guided lumbar interlaminar epidural injections is outside the epidural space.

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