The Importance of Image Guidance during Epidural Injections: Rates of Incorrect Needle Placement during Non-Image Guided Epidural Injections
|Joshua H. Levin1*, Ryan Wetzel2 and Matthew W. Smuck3|
|1Aurora Advanced Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA|
|2Midlands Orthopaedics, Columbia, SC, USA|
|3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, Redwood City, CA, USA|
|Corresponding Author :||Joshua H. Levin
Aurora Advanced Healthcare
Milwaukee, WI, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received November 25, 2011; Accepted February 17, 2012; Published February 20, 2012|
|Citation: Levin JH, Wetzel R, Smuck MW (2012) The Importance of Image Guidance during Epidural Injections: Rates of Incorrect Needle Placement during Non-Image Guided Epidural Injections. J Spine 1:113. doi:10.4172/2165-7939.1000113|
|Copyright: © 2012 Levin JH, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
Background: Epidural steroid injections are commonly-performed procedures used to treat several spinal conditions. Traditionally, these procedures have been performed without image guidance. However, a large number of blindly-performed injections are inaccurate with needle placement outside the epidural space. The purpose of the current article was to review the data on inaccuracy rates of non-image guided epidural injections.
Results and Conclusions: 9-52% of non-image guided caudal epidural injections are outside the epidural space. 7-30% on non-image guided lumbar interlaminar epidural injections is outside the epidural space.