alexa The Importance of Orientation in Evaluating Recovery in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2329-9096

International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
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Research Article

The Importance of Orientation in Evaluating Recovery in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

Gillian Hotz1*, Elena Plante2, Nancy Helm-Estabrooks3 and Nickola Wolf Nelson4

1University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, USA

2The University of Arizona, USA

3Western Carolina University, USA

4Western Michigan University, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Gillian Hotz
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA
Tel: 3052434004
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: February 22, 2014; Accepted Date: April 17, 2014; Published Date: April 22, 2014

Citation: Hotz G, Plante E, Helm-Estabrooks N, Nelson NW (2014) The Importance of Orientation in Evaluating Recovery in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. Int J Phys Med Rehabil S5:004. doi: 10.4172/2329-9096.S5-004

Copyright: © 2014 Hotz G, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Objective: Decisions about whether children who have sustained a traumatic brain injury are ready to transition from a medical facility to home and school life requires insight into their cognitive status. This study evaluates whether orientation to time, place, and self (Ox3) serves as sufficient indicator of general cognitive status to support such decisions. Design: Participants with and without TBI were administered the PTBI in one to three individual testing sessions. Performance on Ox3 items were compared between groups, as well as performance on subtests representing broader cognitive and linguistic skills. Setting: Pediatric brain injury in patient acute and rehab units. Participants: Twenty-eight children with TBI (18 male, 10 female) between the ages of 6 and 16 years of age served as participants. Of these, 12 were initially classified as severe, 6 moderate, and 10 mild on the Glasgow Coma Scale. Interventions: NA Main Outcome Measures: The Pediatric Test of Brain Injury (PTBI) is a criterion-referenced, standardized test designed to measure neurocognitive, language and literacy abilities in children recovering from brain injury. The entire test, including its Orientation subtest, was administered to participants during the acute phase of recovery (within 3 months of injury). Results: Despite no differences between the TBI and control group on the Orientation subtests, deficits occurred in other cognitive-linguistic domains that are relevant to functioning outside medical and rehabilitation environments. Furthermore, even neurologically-normal children sometimes failed some Ox3 items. Conclusion: The findings on Orientation items from the PTBI indicates that caution is warranted in applying the “Ox3” standard for evaluating cognitive status to a pediatric TBI population.


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