The Indirect Costs of Diabetic Foot Ulcers in PolandTomasz Macioch1*, Urszula Zalewska1, Elzbieta Sobol2, Beata Mrozikiewicz-Rakowska3, Arkadiusz Krakowiecki3 and Tomasz Hermanowski1
- *Corresponding Author:
- Tomasz Macioch
Aleja Lip 1 05-092 Lomianki, Poland
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Received date: March 31, 2015; Accepted date: April 21, 2015; Published date: April 28, 2015
Citation: Macioch T, Zalewska U, Sobol E, Rakowska BM, Krakowiecki A, et al. (2015) The Indirect Costs of Diabetic Foot Ulcers in Poland. J Diabetes Metab 6:540. doi: 10.4172/2155-6156.1000540
Copyright: © 2015 Macioch T, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to estimate the productivity loss and indirect costs associated with foot ulcers in patients with diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). An additional goal was to estimate the productivity loss and indirect costs in the population of informal caregivers of patients with DFS.
Methods: Based on a prospective survey the effects of ulcers on patients’ professional activities were measured, and in addition, the disease-associated loss of productivity in the population of professionally active patients and caregivers was examined. Loss of productivity was measured using a modified WPAI questionnaire. The indirect costs of both absenteeism and presenteeism were estimated using the human capital approach.
Results: Mean absenteeism was estimated at 32.63% of the nominal working time, whereas presenteeism was estimated at 23.48% of real working time. Among informal caregivers, mean absenteeism was estimated at 13.67% of the nominal working time, and presenteeism was estimated at 27.21% of real working time. Total annual indirect costs associated with productivity loss in the patient population amounted to EUR 170.8 million, including EUR 117.3 million in costs for sickness absences and EUR 53.5 million in presenteeism costs. Total annual indirect costs associated with productivity loss in the population of informal caregivers amounted to EUR 303.3 million, including EUR 80.8 million in costs for sickness absence and EUR 222.6 million in presenteeism costs.
Conclusions: The indirect costs associated with foot ulcers in patients with DFS impose a substantial burden on the Polish economy.