alexa The Influence of Innate and Adaptive Immunity on Crohn’s Disease Severity
ISSN: 2155-9899

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
Open Access

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Review Article

The Influence of Innate and Adaptive Immunity on Crohn’s Disease Severity

Neville Azzopardi1*, Keith Sacco2 and Godfrey Grech2
1Gastroenterology Department, Mater dei Hospital, Malta
2Pathology Department, Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, University of Malta, Malta
Corresponding Author : Dr. Neville Azzopardi MD, MRCP(UK)
Gastroenterology Department
Mater dei Hospital, Malta
Tel: +356 99853695
E-mail: [email protected]
Received March 19, 2014; Accepted May 28, 2014; Published June 04, 2014
Citation: Azzopardi N, Sacco K, Grech G (2014) The Influence of Innate and Adaptive Immunity on Crohn’s Disease Severity. J Clin Cell Immunol 5:219. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000219
Copyright: © 2014 Azzopardi N, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Stricturing and penetrating disease are classified as severe Crohn’s disease types and are frequently associated with an increased risk for bowel surgery. Research has shown that early treatment with aggressive immunosuppression (including biological and thiopurine therapies – the so-called “top-down approach”) results in a diminished risk of developing these complicated disease types. However, these therapies carry significant risks and cost. Being able to predict which patients are at an increased risk of developing severe Crohn’s disease may enable us to treat patients individually, with the aggressive “top-down approach” started at diagnosis in patients with a significantly increased risk of developing complicated disease types. Defects of innate and adaptive immunity both play a role in Crohn’s disease pathophysiology. Identifying whether defects of innate immunity (through gene mutations) or adaptive immunity (through antibodies to microbial antigens) are associated with stricturing/penetrating disease types may enable us to predict the course of the disease and therefore decide on who would benefit most from the “top-down approach”. This review discusses the role of NOD2 and other gene polymorphisms in predicting Crohn’s disease severity. It also highlights the evidence linking the role of the various antibodies involved in adaptive immunity (ASCA, OmpC, GM-CSF) and complicated Crohn’s disease types.

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