The ISO Standard 14577 for Mechanics Violates the First Energy Law and Denies Physical DimensionsKaupp G*
University of Oldenburg, Germany
- *Corresponding Author:
- Kaupp G
University of Oldenburg
Diekweg 15 D-26188
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: January 24, 2017; Accepted Date: February 08, 2017; Published Date: February 18, 2017
Citation: Kaupp G (2017) The ISO Standard 14577 for Mechanics Violates the First Energy Law and Denies Physical Dimensions. J Material Sci Eng 6:321. doi: 10.4172/2169-0022.1000321
Copyright: © 2017 Kaupp G. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The basis of the quantitative conical/pyramidal (nano) indentation, without fittings, iterations, or simulations, is the physically founded FN=k h3/2 relation. The constant k (penetration resistance, mN/μm3/2) from linear plot with excellent regression discards initial surface effects, identifies important phase transformation onsets, conversion and activation energies, and reveals errors. The failing Sneddon theory of ISO with unphysical exponent 2 on h lacks these possibilities, disregards shear-force work, and violates the first energy law since 50 years. The denied but strictly quantified loss of energy (20% for physical h3/2; 33.33% at believed h2) violates the first energy law and disregards the force remaining for penetration. Straightforward correction is performed for the dimensions, by replacing unphysical exponent 2. The correction factors hmax 1/2 and 0.8 are applied via joint maximal force to the universal, FE-simulated, (approximately) ISO hardness, and ISO modulus that unduly rely on h2, to give the physically founded values with their correct dimensions. Previous corrected k-values obtain Hphys directly from the loading curve regression. Previous incomplete corrections are rectified. The new dimensions and daily risk liabilities from ISO versus physics dilemma are discussed, considering the influence on all mechanical parameters from hardness and modulus, regarding technique, biology, medicine, daily life.