THE LORANTHACEAE (MISTLETOE) HEMIPARASITES VASCULAR TREES AND SHRUBS AGROECOSYSTEMS OF THE SUD-COMO REGION, DENSE EVERGREEN FOREST AREA OF COTE DIVOIRE
The Loranthaceae are vascular plants hemiparasites, commonly called mistletoes are now a threat to many orchards. The present study carried in the agroecosystems of Sud-Comoé district, in a forest area of Côte d’Ivoire, aims to inventory the parasites species and determine the rate and Loranthaceae infestation intensity on tree orchards. The results obtained in this work show that the attacks of parasites in orchards plants are very important. These attacks are caused by 7 parasites species recorded on the feet of cocoa, coffee, rubber and spontaneous species of agroecosystems. Hundred sixteen host species, gathered into 77 genus and 35 families were parasitized. Tapinanthus bangwensis and Phragmanthera capitata are two ubiquitous species in the study area with an abundance Tapinanthus bangwensis on cocoa and coffee trees. The results show that the cocoa and rubber trees are the most infected. The average rates of infestation observed cocoa is 65.79 ± 21.17 and 60.70 ± 20.89 p.c. for rubber trees. The intensity of infection was 2.22 ± 0.54 tufts per plant for rubber against 1.65 ± 0.40 tufts per plant for cocoa. The degree of infestation orchards appeared to be related to age orchards in maintenance of orchards, a location of plants in the plots and the presence of parasites vulnerable spontaneous species. In the study area, mechanical control method is used by 84.40 p.c. of the interviewed farmers. But this method of struggle against parasites is perilous in rubber production, because of the tufts located high on the tree and branches fragility.