The M1/M2 Pattern and the Oxidative Stress are Modulated by Low- Level Laser in Human Macrophage
|Carvalho JL1, Britto A2, Souza NH2, Ligeiro de Oliveira AP2, Anatriello E1, Albertini R1 and Aimbire F1*|
|1Institute of Science and Technology, Federal University of São Paulo-Unifesp, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil|
|2Department of Biophotonic, Nove de Julho University – Uninove, São Paulo, SP, Brazil|
|Corresponding Author :||Flávio Aimbire
Federal University of São Paulo-UNIFESP
Institute of Science and Technology
Rua Talim, no. 330-Vila Nair
CEP: 12231-280. São José dos Campos
Tel: (12) 3309-9578
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received: November 01, 2014 Accepted: January 12, 2015 Published: January 15, 2015|
|Citation: Carvalho JL, Britto A, Souza NH, Ligeiro de Oliveira AP, Anatriello E, et al. (2016) The M1/M2 Pattern and the Oxidative Stress are Modulated by Low-Level Laser in Human Macrophage . J Clin Cell Immunol 7:387. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000387|
|Copyright: © 2015 Carvalho JL, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Objective: This study investigated the phototherapy (PhT) effect on U937 cells activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli. PhT has been reported to control the release of inflammatory mediators from different cells activated by LPS. It is unknown if the macrophage M1/M2 pattern as well as the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines secretion from U937 cells can be influenced by PhT.
Methods: The U937 cells, a human monocytic cell line, were cultured and matured to macrophages in a medium with LPS and irradiated (660 nm) at 4.5 J/cm2. Apoptosis was standardized with Annexin-V and propidie iodate (PI) and the cytotoxicity assay evaluated by MTT. ROS was measured by DCFH-DA. The cytokines, chemokines, NF-κB and Sp1 activity were measured by ELISA. PhT was studied in the presence of a Sp1 inhibitor, mithramycin.
Results: The pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, ROS and NF-κB were downregulated by PhT. On the contrary, IL-10, arginase, PGC-1β and glutathione were upregulated. The Sp1 activity was increased after PhT to values higher than those from cells only LPS-treated; oppositely the mithramycin abrogated this effect.
Conclusion: The PhT restored the macrophage polarization toward M2 pattern as well as balanced the oxidative stress and modulated the immune response upregulating the IL-10 secretion by a mechanism in which Sp1 transcription factor has a crucial role.