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The Metabolic Prospective and Redox Regulation of Macrophage Polarization | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-9899

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
Open Access

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Review Article

The Metabolic Prospective and Redox Regulation of Macrophage Polarization

Chao He1 and A Brent Carter1-3*
1Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama, USA
2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama, USA
3Birmingham VAMC, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
Corresponding Author : A Brent Carter
Professor, Department of Medicine
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama, USA
Tel: 205-996-1682
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: September 15, 2015 Accepted: November 12, 2015 Published: November 30, 2015
Citation: He C, Carter AB (2015) The Metabolic Prospective and Redox Regulation of Macrophage Polarization. J Clin Cell Immunol 6:371. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000371
Copyright: © 2015 He C, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Macrophage plasticity is an important feature of these innate immune cells. Macrophage phenotypes are divided into two categories, the classically activated macrophages (CAM, M1 phenotype) and the alternatively activated macrophages (AAM, M2 phenotype). M1 macrophages are commonly associated with the generation of proinflammatory cytokines, whereas M2 macrophages are anti-inflammatory and often associated with tumor progression and fibrosis development. Macrophages produce high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent evidence suggests ROS can potentially regulate macrophage phenotype. In addition, macrophages phenotypes are closely related to their metabolic patterns, particularly fatty acid/cholesterol metabolism. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advances in macrophage polarization with special attention to their relevance to specific disease conditions and metabolic regulation of polarization. Understanding these metabolic switches can facilitate the development of targeted therapy for various diseases.

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