alexa The Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Diseases: An
ISSN: 2167-0943

Journal of Metabolic Syndrome
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Review Article

The Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Diseases: An Update of Medical Treatment

Markolf Hanefeld1, Frank Pistrosch1, Jan Schulze2 and Ulrike Rothe3*
1GWT-TUD GmbH, Study center Prof. Hanefeld, Dresden, Germany
2Saxonian Chamber of Physicians, Dresden, Germany
3Health Sciences/Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, TU Dresden, Germany
Corresponding Author : Ulrike Rothe
Health Sciences/Public Health
Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus
Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstrabe 74
D-01307 Dresden, Germany
Tel: 49 351 3177 23
Fax: 49 351 3177 233
E-mail: [email protected]
Received July 23, 2014; Accepted August 27, 2014; Published August 30, 2014
Citation: Hanefeld M, Pistrosch F, Schulze J, Rothe U (2014) The Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Diseases: An Update of Medical Treatment. J Metabolic Synd 3:160. doi:10.4172/2167-0943.1000160
Copyright: © 2014 Hanefeld M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Co mmons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


The metabolic syndrome represents a cluster of closely connected premorbid risk factors or diseases with visceral obesity, prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, hypertension and low dyslipidemia as established traits affecting about 20 % of adults in developed countries. This syndrome develops on a common soil with overnutrition, low physical activity and psychosocial stress as major components. Common comorbidities are fatty liver, sleep apnoe and gout with cardiovascular complications, nephropathy and type 2 diabetes as ‘endstage’ diseases. The term metabolic vascular syndrome was proposed to signal premorbid cardiovascular state and increased cardiovascular morbidity. Thus, a rational diagnostic is needed to elucidate the complex cluster of diseases as basis for an integrated therapy. There is a clear priority for life style intervention however most diseases of the metabolic syndrome need medical treatment. Medical treatment of single traits has to take into account possible pleiotropic or adverse effects on the other traits. Here we present the pros and cons of major medical interventions in type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hypercoagulation in the context with the metabolic syndrome.


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