alexa The Metabolomics of Nitric Oxide and Reactive Nitrogen Species in Immune Editing Tumor Milieu: Influence of Nitric Oxide-Modulating Therapies | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2157-7609

Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Open Access

Like us on:

OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Review Article

The Metabolomics of Nitric Oxide and Reactive Nitrogen Species in Immune Editing Tumor Milieu: Influence of Nitric Oxide-Modulating Therapies

Ashok R. Amin*
Department of Biochemical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine. Rheumatrix Inc., Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
Corresponding Author : Ashok R. Amin
Rheumatrix Inc., Blacksburg
Virginia 24060, USA
Tel: +908-416-5739
E-mail: [email protected]
Received January 13, 2012; Accepted July 06, 2012; Published July 09, 2012
Citation: Amin AR (2012) The Metabolomics of Nitric Oxide and Reactive Nitrogen Species in Immune Editing Tumor Milieu: Influence of Nitric Oxide-Modulating Therapies. J Drug Metab Toxicol S8:002. doi: 10.4172/2157-7609.S8-002
Copyright: © 2012 Amin AR, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO), reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, hypoxia, L-arginine metabolites and peroxynitrite are contributing agents during various stages of carcinogenesis. Among these, NO contributes to various functions in the tumor microenvironment such as augmenting immune suppression, maintaining anergy to tumor associated antigens, stimulating angiogenesis, enhancing tumor growth and invasiveness, and modulating autophagy. Most cells in the tumor milieu either release NO and/or have altered physiological functions due to the influence of NO. Cancer cells evolve into a metabolic state to tolerate and reduce reactive nitrogen and oxygen species to elude oxidative damage. These cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment inhibit cellular infiltration of effector immune cells into the cancer milieu. Increased levels of CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins such as C/EBP α and β are required for inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) gene expression and other transcripts for sustaining an immunosuppressive environment in growing tumors. The immunoediting property of reactive nitrogen and oxygen-modified metabolites change the functions of: intratumoral chemokines, T cell receptors, antigen specific tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), cytotoxic T lymphocyte, myeloid derived suppressive cells (MDSCs), gene expression, tumor suppressor genes, and Interferon responses which together countersignal tumor immunity. Recent studies show that reactive nitrogen species that promote tumor-mediated immune evasion can be reversed by gene therapy, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy by targeting or co-targeting excessive nitric oxide accumulation.

Keywords

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

kactakapaniyor.com

[email protected]

+1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

Taktube

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

porn sex

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

Gaziantep Escort

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

sikiş

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

https://www.gaziantepescort.info

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

mp3 indir

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

putlockers

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

seks

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
Leave Your Message 24x7