alexa The Neonicotinoid Insecticide Imidacloprid: A Male Reproductive System Toxicity Inducer-Human and Experimental Study | OMICS International
ISSN: 2476-2067

Toxicology: Open Access
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Research Article

The Neonicotinoid Insecticide Imidacloprid: A Male Reproductive System Toxicity Inducer-Human and Experimental Study

Essam M Hafez*, Sahar Y Issa, Maha K AI-Mazroua, Karem T Ibrahim and Safaa M Abdel Rahman

Minia University Faculty of Medicine, Minia, Egypt

*Corresponding Author:
Essam M. Hafez
Minia University Faculty of Medicine, Minia, Egypt
Tel: 00966545990785
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: Jan 10, 2016 Accepted date: Feb 10, 2016 Published date: Feb 18, 2016

Citation: Hafez EM, Issa SY, AI-Mazroua MK, Ibrahim KT, Rahman SMA (2016) The Neonicotinoid Insecticide Imidacloprid: A Male Reproductive System Toxicity Inducer-Human and Experimental Study. Toxicol open access 1:109. doi:10.4172/2476-2067.1000109

Copyright: © 2016 Hafez EM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Objective: This study was undertaken to explore relationships between level of imidacloprid in the serum and semen quality among men farmers in addition to investigating histopathological findings in treated mature male rats.

Methods and results: Our research entailed two parts; firstly, human part done on farm workers (n=35) with age between (Mean ± SD 34.3±6.4) and healthy volunteers (n=25) their ages were (35.6±8.2) years old asked to provide semen and blood samples. A significant negative correlation between sperm concentration, motility, with serum and seminal Imidacloprid (IMI), its main metabolite 6-chloronicotinic acid (6- CINA) and cotinine , was identified in farmers (r= − 0.489; p<0.05). Second part of research was done on adult male rats that had been divided into a total of five groups 10 each. Two groups served as control one as negative and the other as positive. The other three experimental groups were given 45, 90 and 450 mg/kg body weight Imidacloprid in corn orally by a gavage process for fifteen days respectively. There was a significant difference in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), testestrone (tes), Estradiol 2 (E2), prolactin and semen quality in IMI treated rats when compared to control groups. Vacuolar degeneration of germinal epithelium and loss of spermatids, seminiferous tubules suggesting inhibition of spermatogenesis was recorded in IMI treated rats.

Conclusion: Toxic effects to male reproductive system can be considered as an outcome of IMI exposure and infertility problems can be expected in chronically exposed subjects.

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