The New Epidemiology of HIV-Related Kidney Disease
- *Corresponding Author:
- John Cijiang He, MD, PhD
Department of Medicine/ Nephrology
One Gustave L Levy Place
Box 1243,Mount Sinai School of Medicine
New York, NY 10029, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: November 15, 2011; Accepted Date: January 13, 2012; Published Date: January 17, 2012
Citation: Mallipattu SK, Wyatt CM, He JC (2012) The New Epidemiology of HIV-Related Kidney Disease. J AIDS Clinic Res S4:001. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.S4-001
Copyright: © 2012 Mallipattu SK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
HIV-related kidney disease has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the HIV population. It is clear that the epidemiology of HIV-related kidney disease has changed dramatically since the first case reports in 1984. During these early years, the predominant etiology of kidney disease in HIV was recognized as HIVassociated nephropathy (HIVAN), an aggressive form of kidney disease with a high rate of progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Subsequently, with the widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), there was a dramatic decrease in the incidence of ESRD attributed to HIV/AIDS. Although the incidence of HIV-related ESRD has plateaued in the last 15 years, the prevalence has continued to increase because of improved survival. Available prevalence estimates do not include HIV-infected individuals with comorbid ESRD, although there is growing evidence that the epidemiology of kidney disease in the HIV-infected population has changed. This article reviews the impact of risk factors such as race, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hepatitis C virus coinfection, and the chronic use of cART on the changing epidemiology of HIV-related kidney disease. Additionally in this review, we propose potential areas of translational research that will help to further characterize HIV-related kidney disease in the 21st century.