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The Occurrence of Pesticides and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Residential Dust in North Carolina | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2161-0525

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
Open Access

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Research Article

The Occurrence of Pesticides and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Residential Dust in North Carolina

Rebecca Anthopolos1, Martha Keating2, David Camann3, and Marie Lynn Miranda1,4*
1School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, USA
2Keating Environmental, Efland, NC 27243, USA
3Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, 78228-0510, USA
4Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, USA
Corresponding Author : Marie Lynn Miranda, Ph D
Department of Pediatrics
School of Natural Resources and Environment
University of Michigan, 440 Church Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Tel: 734-764-2550
E-mail: [email protected]
Received November 21, 2011; Accepted January 23, 2012; Published January 26, 2012
Citation: Anthopolos R, Keating M, Camann D, Miranda ML (2012) The Occurrence of Pesticides and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Residential Dust in North Carolina. J Environment Analytic Toxicol 2:122. doi: 10.4172/2161-0525.1000122
Copyright: © 2012 Anthopolos R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


The objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence and concentration of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in household dust in North Carolina. Human exposure to these contaminants in the indoor environment is of concern since little degradation takes place indoors resulting in chronic exposure to a mixture of contaminants. In addition, children may be more highly exposed due to hand-to-mouth activities and increasing time spent indoors. We recruited 199 households in Central and Eastern North Carolina and collected composite dust samples over two April-October sampling seasons during 2003 and 2004. Dust samples were analyzed for 16 pesticides (α-chlordane, γ-chlordane, 2,4-D(2-ethylhexyl) ester, alachlor, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, cis- and transpermethrin, 4,4’-DDE, 4,4’-DDT, dieldrin, diazinon, heptachlor, lindane, methoxychlor, and ortho-phenylphenol) andfour PAH compounds (benzo(b)fluoranthene , chrysene/iso-chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, and benz(a)anthracene). The frequency of detection varied for the pesticides; the median number of pesticides detected in sampled homes was seven. The four PAH were found in more than 97% of sampled homes. Detection frequency and concentration of insecticides banned for residential uses were significantly associated with whether the residence was built before or after the ban year (P<0.001 in all cases except for dieldrin where P<0.01, and methoxychlor). Under maximum exposure scenarios, somewhat elevated health risk estimates were calculated, with the majority of the risk attributable to exposure to the banned insecticides dieldrin and DDT. This study provides additional regional data about the mixture and level of contaminants in household dust in the southeastern U.S.

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