The Potential of Neospora caninum Immunogens against Neosporosis
- *Corresponding Author:
- Silva RAE
Zona Rural, Campo Grande
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: September 30, 2015; Accepted date: November 17, 2015; Published date: November 20, 2015
Citation: Piraine REA, Silva RAE, Junior AGDS, Cunha RC, Leite FPL (2015) The Potential of Neospora caninum Immunogens against Neosporosis. J Vaccines Vaccin 6:298. doi: 10.4172/2157-7560.1000298
Copyright: © Silva RAE, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Neospora caninum, the parasite that causes neosporosis, is known worldwide as one of the main drivers of abortion in cattle herds, causing economic losses when raising livestock. Parasitic infection and transmission among animals is difficult to combat, and both diagnostics and controls must be applied to reduce the spread of the pathogen. For control, herd vaccinations represent an alternative, but the current lack of a safe and effective vaccine prevents this method. The parasite has a significant array of structural proteins that assist in the process of infection; surface antigens (SAGs), microneme proteins (MICs), dense granule antigens (GRAs) and rhoptria proteins (ROPs). Antigens from these proteins are currently being studied as immunogens; they are tested alone or in associations, in order to evaluate the induced immune response in animal models. In experimental vaccine studies, different approaches are used in the formulations, such as live vaccines, DNA vaccines, vaccines using biological vectors, and recombinant subunit vaccines (usually developed with the aid of reverse vaccinology). The contrasts observed (in both cytokine levels and protection rates against vertical transmission), in vaccinated and then challenged (N. caninum), laboratory animals show the complexity of parasite invasion mechanisms, and reveal the need for further research to isolate an effective vaccine to protect cattle against the parasite.