The Prevalence and Characteristics of Allergy in Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases
|Ildikó Molnár1*, Erzsébet Kelemen2 and Éva Somogyiné-Vári1|
|1Immunoendocrinology and Osteoporosis Centre, EndoMed, Bem tér 18/C., H-4026 Debrecen, Hungary|
|2Otorhinolaryngology, EJK Nonprofit KFT, Debrecen, Hungary|
|Corresponding Author :||Molnár I
Immunoendocrinology and Osteoporosis Centre
EndoMed, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen, Hungary
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received December 11, 2014; Accepted March 15, 2015; Published March 22, 2015|
|Citation: Molnár I, Kelemen E, Somogyiné-Vári E (2015) The Prevalence and Characteristics of Allergy in Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases. J Clin Cell Immunol 6:306. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000306|
|Copyright: © 2015 Molnar I, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Objective: The relationship between autoimmunity and allergy is well known. The immunoregulation can be modified towards T helper 2 dominance by cytokines and regulatory T cells, which participate in both diseases. Autoimmune thyroid diseases possess different immunoregulatory and sympathoadrenal activity, whose features can be reflected by their association with allergic attacks and the degree of allergen-specific IgE levels.
Methods: Two-hundred-fifty-nine patients, 149 with Graves’ disease (57 had ophthalmopathy), 110 with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and 65 controls with small euthyroid goitre were investigated. Allergen-specific IgE levels to 20 respiratory and 20 food allergens were detected by AllergySreen immunoblot method and given in IU/ml. Thyroid hormones and autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Htg) were measured in a fully automated way, but TSH receptor antibodies with radioimmunoassay.
Results: The prevalences of respiratory and food allergen-specific IgE levels were higher in Graves’ disease in comparison with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and controls. The seasonal allergen-specific IgE levels increased more in Graves’ patients without ophthalmopathy, than in patients who had eye symptoms and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Mugwort- and soybean-specific IgE levels elevated significantly in the absence of anti-Htg and the presence of TSH receptor antibodies, respectively. In turn, the presence of allergen-specific IgE levels was associated with alterations in thyroid hormone and antithyroid antibody levels too.
Conclusion: The elevated prevalences of respiratory and food allergies reflected Th2-derived cytokine productions in autoimmune thyroid diseases. The lower respiratory and food allergen-specific IgE levels highlighted a role of prominent proinflammatory cytokine productions in Graves’ ophthalmopathy and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Allergy due to increased Th2-derived and proinflammatory cytokine productions may aggravate or induce AITDs, as well as via modified thyroid hormone and antithyroid antibody levels may contribute to a slow remission rate of Graves’ hyperthyroidism.