alexa The Role of Mercury in Cardiovascular Disease
ISSN: 2329-9517

Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
Open Access

OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations

700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Review Article

The Role of Mercury in Cardiovascular Disease

Mark C. Houston1,2,3*
1Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, USA
2Director, Hypertension Institute and Vascular Biology, USA
3Medical Director, Division of Human Nutrition, Saint Thomas Medical Group, Saint Thomas Hospital, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
Corresponding Author : Mark Houston
Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
Director, Hypertension Institute and Vascular Biology, Medical Director
Division of Human Nutrition, Saint Thomas Medical Group, Saint Thomas Hospital
4230 Harding Road, Suite 400, Saint Thomas Medical Plaza, Nashville, TN 37205, USA
Tel: 615-297-2700
Fax: 615-373-0302
E-mail: [email protected]
Received November 08, 2012; Accepted December 17, 2012; Published December 19, 2012
Citation: Houston MC (2014) The Role of Mercury in Cardiovascular Disease. J Cardiovasc Dis Diagn 2: 170. doi: 10.4172/2329-9517.1000170
Copyright: © 2014 Houston MC. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Related article at
DownloadPubmed DownloadScholar Google
 

Abstract

Mercury toxicity is highly correlated with hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and other cardiovascular disease. Mercury has a high affinity for sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, which inactivates numerous enzymatic reactions, amino acids, and sulfur-containing antioxidants [NAC (n-acetyl cysteine, ALA (alpha lipoic acid), GSH (glutathione)], with subsequent decreased oxidant defense and increased oxidative stress. Mercury binds to metallothionein and substitutes for zinc, copper, and other trace metals reducing the effectiveness of metalloenzymes. Mercury induces mitochondrial dysfunction with reduction in ATP, depletion of glutathione, and increased lipid peroxidation. Selenium and fish containing omega 3 fatty acids or omega 3 fatty acids supplements with DHA and EPA antagonize mercury toxicity. The overall vascular effects of mercury include increased oxidative stress, inflammation, reduced oxidative defense, thrombosis, vascular smooth muscle dysfunction and hypertrophy, endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia, immune and mitochondrial dysfunction. The clinical consequences of mercury toxicity include hypertension, CHD, MI, cardiac arrhythmias, reduced heart rate variability, increased carotid IMT and carotid artery obstruction, CVA, generalized atherosclerosis, renal dysfunction, renal insufficiency and proteinuria. Pathological and biochemical findings correlate with the clinical manifestations of mercury toxicity. Mercury diminishes the protective effect of fish and omega-3 fatty acids. Mercury inactivates COMT (catecholamine 0 methyl transferase), which increases serum and urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. This effect will increase blood pressure and may be a clinical clue to mercury- induced heavy metal toxicity. Mercury toxicity should be evaluated in any patient with hypertension, CHD, MI, CVD, CVA or other vascular disease. Specific testing for acute and chronic toxicity and total body burden using hair, toenail, urine and serum should be done with both baseline and provocation methods.

Keywords

Share This Page

Additional Info

Loading
Loading Please wait..
 
Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords