There is No Cryptococcal Antigenaemia among A Cohort of Children with Advanced HIV Infection in an Antiretroviral Therapy Programme in Makurdi, Nigeria
- *Corresponding Author:
- Emmanuel Adémólá Anígilájé
Department of Paediatrics
Benue State University, Makurdi
Benue State, Nigeria
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: October 09, 2013; Accepted Date: November 01, 2013; Published Date: November 05, 2013
Citation: Anígilájé EA, Olutola A, Dabit O, Adeoti AO, Emebolu AJ, et al. (2013) There is No Cryptococcal Antigenaemia among A Cohort of Children with Advanced HIV Infection in an Antiretroviral Therapy Programme in Makurdi, Nigeria. J AIDS Clin Res 4:261. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000261
Copyright: © 2013 Anígilájé EA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Introduction: Cryptococcal disease is an important opportunistic infection and a major contributor to mortality in HIV/AIDS. Unfortunately, there has been no data describing the burden of cryptococcosis in Nigerian HIV-infected children.
Methods: A cross-sectional study between January 2013 to September 2013 at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi to determine the prevalence and risk factors of cryptococcal antigenaemia among a cohort of consecutive HIV-infected children (≤15 years of age) with a CD4 count of ≤200 cells/mm3, including treatment-naive and those on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). The cryptococcal antigen Lateral Flow Assay method was used twice on each sample collected from the children.
Results: A total of 699 children were seen but only 88 children had CD4 count of ≤200 cell/mm3. These 88 subjects included 47 Males and 41 Females (M: F, 1:0.9). The age range was from 12-168 months with a mean of 73.23 ± 41.06 months. The CD4 count was from 10 to 198 cells/mm3 with a median of 104 cells/mm3 (Interquartile range, IQR; 53- 157). Twenty (20/88, 22.7%) children had a CD4 count of less than 50 cells/mm3, 24 (27.3%) had CD4 counts between 51-100, and 44 children (50%) had CD4 counts between 101-198 cell/mm3. The median viral load was 3,016 copies/ ml with an IQR of 200-39,354 copies/ml. Only 11 (12.5%) children were not on HAART. There was no cryptococcal antigenaemia (0%) among the 88 children tested. Statistical analysis was thus limited to simple description.
Conclusion: In our setting, cryptococcosis may not be a strong consideration in the differential diagnosis of severely immunosuppressed HIV-infected children (≤15 years of age) presenting with pneumonia and or meningoencephalitis